Monday, September 30, 2019
Three of the most popular techniques in use by the counseling profession were examined in relationship to Native American culture and worldview, in order to determine the reasons for their ineffectiveness among these people groups. The results indicate that a lack of understanding and sensitivity to Native American culture and belief systems by counselors may be the major contributing factors in the failure of these methods to produce lasting change. Three alternative methods were then investigated. Together, these examinations show that cultural sensitivity and an in-depth understanding of belief systems and practices are critical in helping Native Americans heal from historical traumas and affect real transformation within the Native American community. Cultural Sensitivity in Counseling: A Perspective on Native Americans Why is it that many Native Americans fail to benefit from counseling? Why is there such an enormous Ã¢â¬Å"burn-outÃ¢â¬ rate among counselors who work with this people group? These questions are becoming increasingly more important in the counseling profession. There have been many studies on competencies and practices in multicultural counseling. One such study although dealing primarily with career counseling (Vespia, Fitzpatrick, Fouad, Kantamneni, & Chen, 2010), reinforced the necessity for training in developing a counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s competency with diverse cultures. Another study which dealt specifically with psychotherapy (Lambert, Smart, Campbell, Hawkins, Harmon, & Slade, 2006), echoes this sentiment. However, the cause of ineffectiveness may not necessarily be the incompetence of counselors, but their tendency to use inappropriate methods which fail to consider the unique cultural heritage of Native Americans. These culturally-insensitive methods can sometimes compel clients to violate basic personal values. For example, Native Americans place great emphasis on a harmonious co-existence with nature. If a counselor advocates individual responsibility for mastering the environment, he is, in fact, asking his Native American client to disregard a part of his clientÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural belief system. Take the case of Robert Red Elk (not his real name), a White Mountain Apache, hired at a manufacturing plant in Phoenix, Arizona. RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s supervisor witnessed many instances where RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s fellow employees asked to share his lunch or complete their work assignments. Robert never refused and willingly overworked himself (to the point of exhaustion) finishing the tasks of others. Eventually, after several absences from work, Robert was referred to counseling by his supervisor. The counselor, after an initial assessment, enrolled Robert in assertiveness training. The counselor, however, failed to understand one very important aspect of Robert Red ElkÃ¢â¬â¢s value system: Native Americans are not individualistic. Their culture places great value on sharing and service. There are over 500 federally recognized Indian tribes in the United States. Each tribe has its own beliefs, customs and traditions. Many Native Americans have left the reservation and know very little of their tribal culture, having assimilated into White society. There are, however, many common threads running through Native American culture and philosophy, which if misunderstood can open a breach between counselor and client that can be difficult to heal. For the purposes of this paper, we will be dealing primarily with Native Americans raised and residing within traditional Indian reservation communities. These individuals have retained much of their cultural identity, as opposed to those who have moved into the cities and have become westernized into the White culture. Nearly every tribe has wide-spread personal and social issues which are threatening lives and creating broken homes and broken people. Compared with other racial and ethnic groups, Native Americans have more serious problems with mental health disorders (Olson & Wahab, 2006, p. 19-33). For example, on the Pine Ridge Reservation of the Lakota Sioux, over 50% live below the poverty level. In 2007, the suicide rate there was 3. 2 times that of Whites, between 50% and 90% were unemployed, and the death rate due o alcoholism was 7 times the national average (Diller, 2007). Counselors employ many methods in an attempt to help Native American clients heal from brokenness. This investigation will examine three popular techniques: Free association, cognitive therapy, and behavior modification. In addition, we will discuss why these methods are failing with many Native American clients. First, however, there is a need to explore the average Native American value system. The Native American Value System Silence and Talking. Native Americans believe that listening is the best way to learn. They understand that there are many Ã¢â¬Å"voicesÃ¢â¬ to hear, not merely from other people, but from the earth, the wind, the sky, and the animal kingdom. They listen not only with their physical ears, but with their whole being in an attitude of Ã¢â¬Å"watch, listen and then actÃ¢â¬ (Nerburn, 2002). They believe it unwise to speak before completely formulating oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts. They understand the power of words, and so they speak carefully, choosing words judiciously. In most non-native cultures, interaction with others must be filled with words and speaking that can sometimes become argumentative. Just the opposite is true in most Native American cultures. When asked a question, there will normally be a pause before answering, because any question worthy of an answer is worth considering. When they finally do speak, it is expected that the hearer will listen. Interrupting is considered rude and a sign of ignorance. This practice of silence has a tendency to disconcert someone who is unfamiliar with it, and historically, Caucasians have viewed it as a sign of stupidity. Freedom and Honor Native American cultures value honor far above freedom. Honor is the internal guide for nearly everything they do. The focus is more on what is right, rather than what is wrong. This is one reason why Native Americans have a difficult time understanding the concept of sin. In addition, honor is something that cannot be taken away. If one loses his freedom, he still retains his honor. These views of freedom and honor are very different from those held by western peoples. In the White world, honor means paying homage to or admiring an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishments. To the Native American, honor means knowing and doing what is right for oneself and for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s community. It has no relation to laws or the desire to avoid punishment. Freedom only becomes important after one has been Ã¢â¬Å"chained up,Ã¢â¬ either literally or by the enactment of laws and restrictions (Nerburn, 2002). All My Relations and Racism According to the New Lakota Dictionary, Ã¢â¬Å"Mitakuye oyasinÃ¢â¬ translates to Ã¢â¬Å"all my relativesÃ¢â¬ in Lakota Sioux (Ullrich, 2008, p. 37). The concept of all my relations constitutes an understanding of and honor for the sacredness of each person's individual spiritual path. It acknowledges the sacredness of all life (human, animal, plant, etc. ) and creates an awareness that strengthens not only the individual, but the entire planet. It essentially means that everything is inter-related. In the living of daily life, a ll my relations Ã¢â¬Å"means learning how to connect with certain constructive or creative forces, and disconnect from destructive forcesÃ¢â¬ (Portman & Garrett, 2006). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the understanding that whatever hurts one aspect of the world hurts everything else. Rolling Thunder, the late spiritual leader of the Cherokee and Shoshone tribes, said, Ã¢â¬Å"Too many people don't know that when they harm the earth they harm themselves, nor do they realize that when they harm themselves they harm the earthÃ¢â¬ ¦We say there's room for everyone, if we all share as brothers and sistersÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Plowboy Interview,Ã¢â¬ 1981). This belief in the brotherhood of the human race is one reason why Native Americans abhor racism. Another reason is their suffering because of it. From the 1490's to the 1890's, Europeans and white Americans engaged in an unbroken string of genocide campaigns against the Native people of the AmericasÃ¢â¬ (BigFoot & Willmon-Hague, 2008, p. 54). A study on multi-faith perspectives in family therapy made note of the following historical treatment of Native Americans: Ã¢â¬Å"In government and missionary programs to educate an d acculturate Indians in Christianity and Western ways, children were forcibly taken from their families to boarding schools and stripped of their cultural and spiritual heritageÃ¢â¬ (Walsh, 2010, p. 3). Consequently, Native Americans view racism as evil and most avoid retaliation, because they believe it creates a loss of honor. However, many American Indians still retain an inherent mistrust of Whites (Bryant-Davis & Ocampo, 2006, p. 16). In a study on reservation violence, it was noted that traditionally one important factor regarding Native American philosophy was Ã¢â¬Å"humility to those with whom one does not share beliefs; and teaching nonviolent behaviorsÃ¢â¬ (Hukill, 2006, p. 249). A reintegration with traditional beliefs and practices could help stem the violence on reservations. Concept of Time Native people are not enslaved by a clock or calendar. Their concept of time is related more to the seasons, nature, relationships, and life spans. Time is a cycle as, in the sacred hoop. Time is not measured in linear fashion, having a past, present and future. Living each day as it comes is linked to the belief that one should focus more on being than becoming. This concept of time can explain why Native Americans might be late for counseling appointments by the hour or by days. Adherence to a rigid schedule is not traditionally an Indian practice. Things are done as they need doing. Time is flexible and geared to the activity at hand. Some other examples of this concept of time are: * A right time and a right place, as opposed to making every minute count. * Today is a good day, as opposed to preparing for tomorrow. Other concepts that affect how Native Americans react to traditional counseling methods include striving for anonymity, discouraging aggressiveness (such as boasting and loud behavior), the value of inaction over action, and the use of tribal healing ceremonies. Understanding Native American healing practices requires helping professionals to have knowledge of the cultural belief systems that are unique for each tribal nationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Portman & Garrett, 2006, p. 455). Culturally Insensitive Counseling Methods Counseling methods that fail to consider culturally-relevant issues are realizing few successes with native peoples. Three of the most prominent techniques fail to take into account the Native AmericanÃ¢ â¬â¢s holistic belief system and attempt to merely change behavior by changing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking. Free Association. Free association is a spontaneous, logically unconstrained and undirected association of ideas, emotions and feelings in which words or images suggest other words or images in a non-logical chain reaction. The basic concept is for the client to sort things out, and assign reasons to their feelings, with the intention of changing unhealthy ideas and emotions into a more acceptable way of living. Native American clients typically shy away from participating in this type of activity, because they see it as senseless babbling that accomplishes little and makes a person appear to have lost their mind. They much prefer being silent and listening to talking and babbling themselves into a reasonable state of mind. In addition, they are very cautious about sharing personal and family problems, and have difficulty communicating their reactions to situations. Cognitive Therapy Cognitive therapy aims to identify and correct distorted thinking patterns that lead to feelings and behavior that are troublesome, self-defeating or self-destructive. The objective is to replace distorted thinking with a balanced view that leads to more fulfilling and productive behavior. Due to the epidemic of depression, alcoholism and suicide among Native Americans, this is an admirable objective for counselors to attempt to achieve. However, for a people, who are holistically-minded, cognitive therapy considers only one facet of the whole person, and ignores the connection humans have with nature and the world. This approach disavows the unity of the person, a central core belief in Native American culture. To separate the mind from the body and spirit, and with the rest of creation, is an illogical and foreign concept to them. In addition, most Native Americans are pragmatic and tend to see life in concrete terms rather than abstract ones. Therefore, Ã¢â¬Å"counselors may consider working from a holistic, wellness-based framework,Ã¢â¬ so that harmony and balance can be restored (Rayle, Chee, & Sand, 2006, p. 72). Behavior Modification This approach is a treatment approach based on operant conditioning that seeks to extinguish or inhibit abnormal or maladaptive behavior by positive or negative reinforcement. As with cognitive therapy, behavior modification focuses entirely on one facet of the whole person. Native Americans are very resistant to this approach, because they do not always focus on their thinking. Historically, they have been exposed to the inconsistency of people thinking one way and behaving another way. According to Native American culture, behavior reflects belief. Attempting to change behavior from the outside and failing to deal with internal issues is viewed as a waste of energy and considered unproductive. Typically, Native Americans respond better to holistic methods that involve the whole person: body, mind and spirit. Culturally insensitive approaches to counseling can actually introduce a sense of mistrust into relationships between native clients and non-native counselors derailing attempts to help them overcome the issues that defeat them. This is one reason why Native Americans Ã¢â¬Å"underutilize mainstream mental health resourcesÃ¢â¬ (Parrish, 2006, p. 15). Culturally Supportive Approaches to Counseling As understanding and knowledge of cultural beliefs and practices grows, holistic approaches to counseling are becoming more prevalent in clinics and practices in which the majority of clients are Native American. There are several methods which are showing great promise in helping these clients. Inner Healing Prayer Because Native American culture is infused with the spiritual and encompasses a holistic view of the body, soul and spirit, the concept of listening, which is the foundation of this method, lends itself to a more culturally-relevant way of approaching the mental and emotional issues found among indigenous peoples. Native cultures are already accustomed to listening because of their practice of being attentive to the sounds of nature and the practices of oral traditions passed down through the stories of tribal elders. They understand that listening is one of the best ways to learn. The inner healing prayer can offer Native Americans a way to re-establish harmony with their body, their emotions, and their spiritual selves (Rayle, Chee & Sand, 2006, p. 77), since it begins with addressing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional hurts. Ã¢â¬Å"It is counselor-led and client-consented prayer intervention with the specific intent of healing and breaking the chains of past traumasÃ¢â¬ (Clinton & Ohlschlager, 2002, p. 240). When woundedness goes unresolved, it affects the whole person creating disharmony within the body, soul and spirit. Native American culture already understands this concept. The typical scenario is to give the client permission to experience what they feel, and allow their inner emotions to express themselves in a controlled, safe environment. Encouraging them to remember those painful places and the trauma that occurred there helps bring emotions to the surface where they can be explored, felt, owned, and released from the captured place within the spirit. Once accomplished, the counselor can then ask the Lord Jesus [Great Mystery] to minister His love and grace, revealing truth in whatever manner He chooses. The counselor then remains silent, encouraging the client to verbally express whatever is transpiring within them and articulate whatever truth the Lord is revealing to them. The counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to discern whether the client is receiving truth from the Lord (according to the revealed Word of God) or error manifested from within themselves, which would constitute feelings and/or thoughts that run contrary to scripture. Once it is determined that authentic truth has been received, the counselor then asks the client what is now different about that traumatic event when they reconsider it. At this point, an entirely different perspective is usually revealed by the client. It is important when using this method, as it is with any technique, to Ã¢â¬Å"weave Western counseling techniques with elements of the AI [American Indian] culture, beliefs, and philosophyÃ¢â¬ (Rayle, Chee & Sand, 2006, p. 73-74) [emphasis mine]. It is well to remember, however, that many Native Americans do not believe in the Ã¢â¬Å"white manÃ¢â¬â¢s God. It is important, therefore, to use terms for deity that are culturally relevant, such as Great Mystery, Great Spirit, etc. This approach has shown great potential in overcoming issues such as depression and addiction. Spiritual Talking Talking circles, storytelling and remembering/reflecting on life is very common in Native American culture. Many indigenous children receive th eir first life lessons sitting at the feet of their elders as grandmothers and grandfathers recount tribal stories that teach the traditions of the tribe (Rybak & Decker-Fitts, 2009, p. 337). Since native people relate more to Ã¢â¬Å"the now,Ã¢â¬ it is very therapeutic to recall and embrace the good things in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s present situation. Talking aloud about pleasant experiences helps clients see the good in their present circumstances and allows their spirit to Ã¢â¬Å"be as oneÃ¢â¬ with their body-mind uniting them with the world at large. This enables them to see the big picture and brings everything into a healthy perspective. The role of the counselor in this technique is to facilitate the talking and keep the client on track, while providing a safe environment for them. Another form that spiritual talking may take is in the use of humor. Native cultures inherently understand the old cliche: Laughter is the best medicine. Encouraging clients to share comical stories and experiences can provide insight into the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s identity and self-image. However, counselors should exercise caution in using humor. It should only be introduced Ã¢â¬Å"when and if the client invites it, meaning that the client trusts the counselor enough to connect on that levelÃ¢â¬ (Garrett, et al. , 2005, p. 202). The Holistic Medicine Wheel or Red Path One of the most effective healing techniques and one which incorporates extensively the Native American culture is the Medicine Wheel, sometimes called the Red Path or Red Road. The Medicine Wheel is a symbol of Native America in which four colors (white, black, yellow and red) are used to represent the four directions and the four races of people (Caucasian, African, Asian and Indian), respectively. This symbol also represents the harmony and balance of the mind, body and spirit with nature. The Medicine Wheel is regarded as sacred among Native Americans, since Ã¢â¬Å"medicineÃ¢â¬ is a spiritual entity within their culture. The Medicine Wheel is recognized by all tribes and is a common symbol of unity. It represents healing, not only for oneself, but for the entire native community. This technique, when employed in the counseling setting, includes not only the counselor and client, but also family and friends. It can also be a good tool for use in group counseling where all participants share in a common issue. The facilitator/counselor invites all present to form a circle. The concept of the four directions and their meanings is then discussed. A good representation is: * East represents the rising sun and the spirit or inner being of man (red). * South is connected to full daylight and represents a connection with nature (yellow). * North is the home of winter and represents the mind or thoughts (white). * West is where the sun sets and is connected with the body or physical being (black). (Molina, Monteiro-Leitner, Garrett & Gladding, 2005, p. 9). The counselor then explains the concept of circles within circles. Dallas WilliardÃ¢â¬â¢s Model of the Person is an excellent starting pattern for this concept (Clinton & Ohlschlager, 2002, p. 190). Molina, et al. explain this technique well: An inner circle represents the connection to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s Spirit and to the Greater Spirit; an outer circle represents the importance of relationships with family members; and a community circle represents the importance of relationships with the greater community. At this point, volunteers sit behind each person in the inner circle, forming an outer circle. Finally, the remaining participants form a third circle, which lends support to the inner and outer circles. Throughout the process, life stories emerge. Counselors identify client strengths and validate their experiences, and participants offer support to one another and create Ã¢â¬Å"happyÃ¢â¬ endings to their stories (p. 9). This method helps clients see Ã¢â¬Å"how they create and remove the masks of the selfÃ¢â¬ (Molina, Monteiro-Leitner, Garrett & Gladding, 2005, p. 9). The removal of masks allows the client to be open with their true feelings and to see their issues from a different perspective. A doctoral dissertation by Mark Parrish (2008) offers another well-described view of the Circle Within Circles Approach: The elements of the circle within circles includes: (1) the spirit within us including the culmination of each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences representing the power that comes from the very essence of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s being; (2) the family and/or clan, the relational center of the community; (3) the natural environment and all of its relationships with living beings; and (4) the spirit world which includes the other elements as well as the Creator, ancestors and other spirit helpers and guides. In essence, all life is interdependent and exists in a dynamic state of harmony and balance which maintains a continuous flow and cycling of energy which each living being contributes to the Circle of Life (p. 16). The Medicine Wheel and the Circle Within Circles Ã¢â¬Å"serves as a reminder that all aspects of life are important and need to be balancedÃ¢â¬ (Rybak & Decker-Fitts, 2009, p. 336). Although most individuals will still require more intensive therapy, the Medicine Wheel is a good starting point to help clients remember that they are not an island, but are connected to other individuals and to the world as a whole. Personal Reflections Understanding Native American culture, and learning their views life has caused me to reconsider my own lifestyle and my Caucasian worldview. As westerners, we are an inherently individualistic society, whereas Native Americans are more collective. The mindset and complex belief systems of indigenous people are more similar to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s original plan for mankind than that which White society has developed. Jesus prayed to the Father for unity: that His followers would Ã¢â¬Å"be one, as we are. (John 17:11b, KJV). Native American culture appears to mirror His prayer more than that of Caucasians. Native Americans are more in tune with their spiritual natures than we, and were the original holistic healers. They understand the concept of manÃ¢â¬â¢s triune nature as set forth in 1 Thessalonians 5:23: Ã¢â¬Å"And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Ch ristÃ¢â¬ [emphasis mine]. This concept has been a vital part of their culture for hundreds of years, whereas we are just now (within the past decade) becoming more sensitive to a holistic approach in counseling and medicine. It is very interesting that as one learns the culture and values of Native Americans, one begins to see that there are many aspects that reflect basic biblical principles. Western counseling methods, which have been imposed upon the Native Americans for many years, are very foreign to a people who already understand an important truth of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Word. It makes much better sense to first understand their culture and beliefs and then adapt our methods and techniques accordingly, in order to be more effective facilitators in the healing process. Not only will these historically-wounded people be set free with true inner healing, but at the same time many may come into a full knowledge of and a relationship with the true Lord Jesus Christ. Jesus healed the blind man of his physical ailments before healing him of his spiritual malady. Therefore, if we connect with Native Americans through their ways of life, love them in Christ, and keep the Holy Spirit as the center of our ministry to them, many of these forgotten people can enjoy a fullness of life that only comes through the healing power of Christ. As a Christian counselor, I will be committed to providing the Native American people with a biblically-sound, culturally-relevant approach to helping them heal the issues from which they suffer, both historically and personally. As I become more knowledgeable in their beliefs, traditions and worldview, I can foresee a time when what I am learning now will blend with that insight to produce techniques which will enable me to be a more effective counselor to the people to whom God has called me to minister. Conclusion To be effective counselors within the Native American community, it is not enough that we increase our knowledge of psychology and our skills in counseling. We need to immerse ourselves in the cultural issues pertinent to each individual client and the community which has shaped them. This comes by understanding belief systems and cultural contexts, and determining what methods can and cannot work based upon these parameters. Native American culture is centered on certain holistic viewpoints: the wholeness of the individual (body, mind and spirit), the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s interconnectedness with creation, and the relationship all people have with one another. Counseling such a people involves understanding and respecting values, beliefs and traditions, and tailoring our methods and techniques around restoring harmony and balance in ways which do not demand or manipulate Native Americans into ceasing to be Native American. One very good exercise for assisting in the development of counselor competency in this area is cultural auditing, which is a Ã¢â¬Å"systematic and practical reflective method designed to address critical elements of the multicultural competency development processÃ¢â¬ (Collins, Arthur & Wong-Wylie, 2010, p. 340-346). The 13 steps of this process lead counselors through the first to last counseling sessions by helping them reflect on key issues of culture that can help them develop competent strategies and monitor their practices Ã¢â¬Å"to ensure that the goals and processes of counseling are consistent with clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ perspectives and needsÃ¢â¬ (Collins, Arthur & Wong-Wylie, 2010, p. 341). In order for greater effectiveness to be realized in counseling Native Americans (and indeed people of all cultures), mental health professionals and researchers must understand that all methods do not work with all people. Milton Erickson, one of psychotherapyÃ¢â¬â¢s most respected figures, who was of Native American descent, understood this very well (Thomason, 2009, p. 351). A 40-year study of multicultural counseling, completed in 2008 by Michael DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea and Elizabeth Foster Heckman, discovered many inconsistencies and out-dated methods being utilized with clients of diverse cultures, and called for researchers to Ã¢â¬Å"expand their outcome studies to examine the impact of other types of helping services among culturally different populationsÃ¢â¬ (DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea & Heckman, 2008, p. 62). Their final statement summarizes beautifully what is needed for effective, long-term resolution for Native Americans: We suggest that the multicultural counseling movement is a movement of faith and hope: faith in counselorsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to generate new understanding of mental health from a multicultural perspective and hope that future counseling and research endeavors will be implemented to more e ffectively promote human dignity and development through peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s collective diversity (DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea & Heckman, 2008, p. 362). The increase of diverse of cultures within the United States makes it imperative (a) Ã¢â¬Å"that therapists have the skills to work with a variety of clients from a multitude of social backgrounds (Murphy, Park & Lonsdale, 2006, p. 310); and (b) Ã¢â¬Å"for the counseling profession to take a proactive stance on cultural diversityÃ¢â¬ (Phiri-Alleman & Allman, 2010, p. 157). Culturally competent counseling has been addressed by the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics (ACA) and the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). Both of these groups stress the importance of social and cultural diversity in training programs for counselors, and emphasize the need for culturally-relevant treatment planning, especially when working with Native Americans (Parrish, 2008, p. 17). The competency of multicultural counselors can best be developed by encouraging them to become knowledgeable in the beliefs, traditions and worldview of various cultures and utilize that knowledge to tailor their counseling techniques in ways that will boost the effectiveness of their practice.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Throughout Ã¢â¬Å"The Kite RunnerÃ¢â¬ Amir is portrayed as a boy who is always trying to make up or redeem himself for the mistakes he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t control, or made. By Amir winning the tournament he tries to redeem himself since he believes he caused his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, but by redeeming himself for that he witnessed the mistake for not standing up for Hassan. After winning the tournament with the help of Hassan he redeems himself for his father. Amir is weak in BabaÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, and thinks everything his son does is incorrect. Amir wants to be BabaÃ¢â¬â¢s favourite and for Baba to give him all of his attention, due to their expectations in one another. Baba is redeemed to his son after he wins and beats the record in the kite tournament. Amir risked his life by going back to Afghanistan. After leaving Afghanistan at the age of eighteen. Escaping inside the tank of a gas trunk, after the attack of Russians on Afghanistan. Amir had no reason to go back, until one day when Rahim Khan tells him about HassanÃ¢â¬â¢s death. However the most shocking part of the letter concerns HassanÃ¢â¬â¢s real father, which is Baba. Amir stands up for Sohrab by fighting Assef for him. When Amir returns to Afghanistan to find Sohrab proves to be the solution to his quilt towards Hassan, it also is the source of the redemption he so desperately wants to seek. He chose to find Sohrab and tries his hardest to give him a better life even if that does mean sacrificing his own safety. Therefor throughout Ã¢â¬Å"The Kite RunnerÃ¢â¬ Amir is portrayed as a boy who is always trying to make up or redeem himself for the mistakes he made, but does redeem himself towards his father, Sohrab and especially Hassan. As HassanÃ¢â¬â¢s and AmirÃ¢â¬â¢s father would say Ã¢â¬Å"a boy who canÃ¢â¬â¢t stand up for himself becomes a man who canÃ¢â¬â¢t stand up to anythingÃ¢â¬ but Amir indicates he can stand up for himself.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
It is extremely helpful to use the numerical scale for quantifying pain severity for a patient in order to best asses a painÃ¢â¬â¢s origin and severity, thus allowing for the most accurate diagnosis and pain treatment. 4. The term Ã¢â¬Å"putting a joint back into placeÃ¢â¬ indicates moving the bone back into the synovial joint (its proper place). The Ã¢â¬Å"popÃ¢â¬ sound occurs due to gas bubbles (nitrogen) escaping from the synovial fluid. 5. Both the shoulder joint and the hip joint are ball-and-socket joints, but the hip joint does not have as large a range of motion when compared to the shoulder joint. The shoulder joint is not just a bony socket, but is comprised of several tendons/muscles (as previously mentioned), synovial fluid, tendon sheaths and hyaline cartilage. Issue #3: Eye problems 1. The term for someone who has problems seeing close objects but can see objects far away is Ã¢â¬Å"hyperopiaÃ¢â¬ or farsightedness. 2. Contrarily, Ã¢â¬Å"myopiaÃ¢â¬ or nearsightedness is the condition of being able to see objects up close but not ones far away. 3. David appears to have hyperopia, since he needs to hold a paper at armÃ¢â¬â¢s length to be able to read. Issue #4: Muscle Physiology 1. The cause of the muscle cramping is hyponatremia or low blood sodium, which may have occurred by the young girl drinking a lot of water in the hot sun to try and stay hydrated, but which caused an electrolyte imbalance in her body, thus resulting in muscle cramps. 2. The muscle cramps will go away once she drinks the salt water, which will restore the necessary electrolyte balance in her body. Issue #5: Muscle Physiology Child Case History 1. The hereditary X-linked recessive disease characterized by progressive muscular weakness is called muscular dystrophy, or Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). 2. Ã¢â¬Å"DystrophyÃ¢â¬ refers to the degeneration of, in this case, muscles. 3. Muscles in the leg involved in walking Ã¢â¬Å"on the toesÃ¢â¬ are the illopsoas, gastrocnemius and soleus. As these muscles weaken, the plantar flexors in the foot take over the job of walking. 4. The trunk muscles that weaken in certain cases of lordosis (sway back) and abdominal protuberance are the lower back muscles (erector spinae), hip flexors, abdominal muscles and the hamstrings.
Friday, September 27, 2019
How best to evaluate the company's involvement in corporate and social responsibility - Case Study Example An organization that makes a positive impact on its society will be able to succeed better in the market. For any organization, to be truly successful in every sense it needs to ensure that it is actively involved handling both corporate and social responsibilities. This essay is aimed at answering the question: Ã¢â¬Å"How best to evaluate the companys involvement in corporate and social responsibility?Ã¢â¬ The whole essay will revolve around the case study on Starbucks: Ã¢â¬Å"Starbucks Global Quest in 2006: Is the Best Yet to Come?Ã¢â¬ (Shah, Thompson & Hawk, 2007). Two other journal articles will be identified and discussed that will relate to the case and will help in answering the above questions. Starbucks is a very good example of how corporate and social responsibilities can be beneficial and advantageous for an organization. There are many issues and instances in the case study that highlight the involvement of Starbucks in corporate and social responsibility. StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ corporate and social responsibility has been one of the main reasons for it being a reputed brand in the world and it is admired for the same. One of the main issues that the company faced was the low morale, unity and confidence of its employees at the time of acquisition of Starbucks by Il Giornale. This was handled were sensibly and responsibly by Howard Schultz. Schultz inspired employees to take individual responsibility and be part of the decision making process. He went the extra mile to ensure that the employees felt they were a part of the company and the company success was a collective success of everyone and not just one person. Employees are the most important asset of any organization and the way an organization treats their employees indicates the commitment of the organization towards it corporate responsibility. The health care programs of Starbucks are another indicator of the corporate responsibility of Starbucks. There was a
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Study on the Position of the Unites States in World Politics - Research Paper Example ormation of a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s view about its importance and role in the world, but also, and perhaps more importantly, determine the manifestations of thus conceived role in trade, culture, diplomacy or war2. In the realm of world politics, however, the position of a state in the international system, along with interstate interactions, is the subject matter of a particular area of study, namely International Relations, usually defined as protracted competition between realist, liberal and radical traditions, or schools of thought3. Realism, as the dominant theoretical tradition throughout the second half of the twentieth century, most notably the Cold War, describes international affairs as Ã¢â¬Å"a struggle for power among self-interested statesÃ¢â¬ within an anarchic environment, where each state seeks to survive on its own4. Liberalism, in turn, includes various theories such as some that regard the interactions between domestic actors Ã¢â¬â either in the political, societal or economic spheres Ã¢â¬â as the most important explanatory factors, as well as others that are predominantly focused on political constitutions, economic systems or dominant ideologies5. This paper is intended to examine the set of domestic and international factors and developments that brought about or/and facilitated the US rise to the position of global superpower during the twentieth century, in order to determine whether or not the country is able to retain this position in the years or decades to come. Being based on historical evidence, as well as taking into consideration the theoretical discourse on the basic forces that shape international outcomes6, the paper attempts an insight into ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to challenge or successfully contest the current US supremacy. Historians widely agree that AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s isolationism from the early twentieth century, i.e. from the 1920s to 1940s, should be ascribed to then domestic political priorities such as the commitment to economic development and
Compensation Laws and Legislation - Research Paper Example Some laws also protect the employers by getting rid of liability of co-workers in most accidents, and by limiting the amount an injured employee can be paid. There is the Federal EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ Compensation Act, specific to federal employees only, and there are workersÃ¢â¬â¢ compensation acts established by each State. WorkersÃ¢â¬â¢ compensation act ensures employees get their benefits through three main programs; Medical treatment, wage replacement, and vocational rehabilitation. Each of these programs is specific to each state (United States Department of Labor). These are payments made by a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s insurance company to an injured or sick employee to cure or relieve the effects of the disease or injury. The insurance company is mandated to make payments for medical treatment. The employee, however, can get compensation benefits for a workplace related injury. There are also compensations to disabilities arising from injuries or illnesses obtained from the workplace. An employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s dependents are also eligible for compensation benefits in case of work related deaths (Lozano v. Archer). A case illustrating workerÃ¢â¬â¢s medical compensation benefit is Maril Be Van, v. Liberty Northwest Insurance Corporation. Be Van worked for Blackfoot Telephone Communications. The company provided for a paid fifteen minute break in the morning, a paid fifteen minute break in the afternoon, and an unpaid one hour lunch break. Be Van got an accident one day when she took an early 15 minutes paid break, and went home. Due to this early break, her break was disputed to be within working hours; therefore, the employer and the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s insurer denied her compensations. It was, however, established that Be Van was to have an early afternoon meeting that day, which would take the time required for her to have her lunch break. It was also established that she went for an early fifteen minute break because of the scheduled meeting at her lunch break. She sought
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
B-boy the Local Scene - Essay Example The culture is also further subdivided on the locality; this is so because music and arts in general is normally a reflection of a society. The lyrics in a song or the type of facts that a movie refers to are normally borrowed from the occurrences in the society. Given the differences in the societal structure, the activities in one society may vary slightly with those of another. This is later reflected in the composition of the music in the locality (Kitwana 87). The town of Bloomington, Indiana, also has its own local hip hop culture. The culture, just like in American hip hop, is influenced by the national hip hop to a greater extent. Hip hop was a music mentality brought into existence by Americans of African descent. These people loved rapping; a type of narration in which an artist simply counts his wordings accompanied by a beat to make music. To make them stand out from any other music genre, artists of this type of music adorned unique type of attires. For instance, they dr essed in baggy and very fashionable dresses which constituted baggy trousers, most preferably jeans, baggy T-shirts, and very expensive jewelry. Besides, the culture involves a show of liking for the basketball sport. This was a culture that was specifically coined out of the preferences portrayed by the African American population in America. Given theikr big bodies, these people loved and played basketball very well. They thus incorporated the love for the sport in the music thereby succeeding in making the sport a black phenomenon. The city of Bloomington, just like many other cities in America, has a cosmopolitan population. It has both blacks and whites living together. However, African Americans tend to dominate in matters of entertainment. This thus implies that hip hop culture is a little bit more predominant in the entertainment scenes in the demography. A bigger portion of youths of the city appreciate the culture. This is a factor they portray in their mode of dressing, t heir hair styles and their speech patterns. Just like addressed earlier, the hip hop showcased in this city borrows much from the national and international hip hop scene. However, given the unique way of life in this city, the trend in music and movie creation has a variance of its own (Watkins 78). Arts and culture is strongly appreciated in the city. Bloomington is a home to a number of cultural centers which have been attributed to the growth of the hip hop culture in the region. There are a number of both professional and armature theater companies including the Indiana university department of theatre and drama. The other is the Bloomington Playwrights Project as well as the Cardinal Stage Company and even Theatre of the People. Besides, the streets of the city are dotted with clubs, cinemas and discos. This points to the fact that arts and culture are a vibrant social aspects of the people in the city. This is also a factor that has led to the development of the hip hop cultu re since very many artists in the city own their own in house production studios. Producing media content is therefore cheap and virtually anyone having interest has the ability to put his interest into practice and turn their talents into sources of livelihoods. There are a number of national arts festivals held in the city that further support the growth of arts and culture in the city. These are platforms that have been used to help promote the hip hop cultu
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
David Mamet's ascertains that actor training limits the narrative process is undermined by his own work - Dissertation Example MametÃ¢â¬â¢s works reflects a minimalist approach and it would appear that, given the meaning and elements of narrative in the performing arts, MametÃ¢â¬â¢s minimalist approach was demonstratively more inconsistent with the narrative process. This research study analyses MametÃ¢â¬â¢s contention that actor training limits the narrative process is undermined by his work. It is concluded that MametÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to acting is formalistic and although his approach to acting is interesting, actor training helps to create academy award winners none of whom can be accused of letting their acting techniques limit the narrative process. In fact, actor training is a more certain way of ensuring that the narrative process flows fluidly. Table of Contents Abstract 2 Introduction 5 Narrative in Film and the Visual Arts 5 Definitions 5 Narrative in Film and the Visual Arts 6 Actor Training and Acting Styles and Techniques 8 MametÃ¢â¬â¢s Works and The Narrative Process 10 Conclusion 20 B ibliography 21 Certification I certify that this dissertation is original and any ideas or material that are not the authors is properly cited and credited using Chicago referencing format. Introduction The fact that David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that actor training limits the narrative process is undermined by his own work, is not surprising. As both a writer and director, MametÃ¢â¬â¢s works often contradict his style and philosophies. For example, MametÃ¢â¬â¢s writing is replete with realism, however, his directing produces minimalist styles rather than realism.1 This dissertation focuses on the contradiction between MametÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that actor training limits the narrative and his own work. It is hypothesized that MametÃ¢â¬â¢s claim is limited by his understanding of the narrative process as a screenwriter and playwright, yet his work reflects a directing style that understands that acting, directing, choreography and the ensemble of scenes and sounds produce a seamless na rrative. In order to explore and test this hypothesis this dissertation is divided into three main parts. The first part of this dissertation describes and analyses narrative in the film and visual arts. The second part of this dissertation analysing actor training and the styles contemplated by actor training. The third part of this dissertation demonstrates how MametÃ¢â¬â¢s claim is undermined by his claim. Narrative in Film and the Visual Arts Definitions According to action theory, narrative is story telling that moves the plot along. Thus narrative is action within a story that moves the plot along and this is usually driven by action and character.2 The theory of narratology of drams is represented in two ways. Prior to the 20th century, narratology of drams limited the concept and definition of drama to Ã¢â¬Å"the verbal transmission of fictional storiesÃ¢â¬ .3 However, as the landscape of fiction changed, there was an increasing interest in narrative in all forms, includ ing paintings. Thus the theory of narratology of drama took into account the fact that there were Ã¢â¬Å"extranarrativeÃ¢â¬ forms that not only helped to tell a story, but was a manifestation of the story itself.4 The theory of narratology of drama is now connected more firmly with the idea that narrative is any text that tells a story and narrative is therefore comprised of Ã¢â¬Å"temporal structure, a set of characters, and a setting.Ã¢â¬ 5 Depending on the discipline, narrative can have a restrictive or very broad meaning. For example in psychology, narrative narrowly contemplates
Monday, September 23, 2019
Firm Fixed Price Contract for Reno Municipality to outsource remittance operations for payment processing functions - Essay Example The agency shall also be in charge of customer service center and it should be equipped with a live customer phone number and interactive internet site for enabling the customer to request for service, bill questions, and provide solutions to issues that occur like emergencies. The customer center should operate for 24 hours having at least one personnel all the time. In case of emergency the customer service should have communicated directly to the municipality. The agency should ensure that the bill is provided to the customer within two working days after getting the billing data from the municipality. The agency should also give the municipality a payment verification at the last day of reporting phase. The reporting cycle is based on the calendar days, the first day will be the date that the municipality will provide the data. Based on the delivery, the agency will be in charge of reconciling all the account billings on a monthly basis and give proper reports to the municipality. The report should contain the number of financial transactions throughout the week and the amounts of currency they represent. Including this information, is the list of computer hardware and software that is used to process the products of the municipality. The contractual terms will be on a yearly basis and renewable up to five years but the municipality retains the right not to renew after the second year if the terms are breached. The agency is entitled to a 2% of the total revenue as a compensation for their services. The low performance of the agency will be penalized on up to 25% of their fee, including other professional misconduct. Excellent performance will receive an extra 2%of the gross revenue or a lump sum bonus of about fifty thousand dollars to be decided by the company. The preparation for the proposal shall involve bids in sealed envelopes or packages which are addressed to the specific office
Sunday, September 22, 2019
The Cuban Missile Crisis Essay Histories were once realities. Most of the stories we read in our textbooks for academic purposes were actual real life experiences of some people Ã¢â¬â people who at that time were faced with fear, anxiety and the pressure to make the right decision. Where we are as a nation today is a reflection of the right or wrong decision made by our leaders. Although we can boast of several illustrious leaders whose decision has helped mould the future of this nation, John F. Kennedy was a president whose choice at a critical period in the history of America made the whole difference (White, 1996). Through his decision, he showed the world that the best way of resolving differences is not through warfare but through negotiations and compromise (Graham, 1999). The true test of a leader is evident in his/she ability to make sound and timely decisions when called upon to do so. A good leader must have the ability to respond to issues, the guts to take risks and foresight to predict what might eventually occur as a result of the decision he/she is making. Where we are as a country today, is as a result of the decisions our leaders have made in the past. No event can be isolated in life; rather, we trace the history of every occurrence to what has happened in the past. This is because the present is a victim of the past and we must understand the past in order to make sense of what is happening in the present. Such is the case in our country. October 1962 Ã¢â¬â a year that will be marked on the calendar of America. For us who read or heard of the story, it was an historic period in America. However, for those witnessed as the events occurred, it was a period of panic, uncertainty and unrest. Nobody could predict what will happen Ã¢â¬â not the American government, not the Soviet Union and definitely not the citizens of America. As Allison puts it, the thirteen days that the crisis lasted can be described as the most dangerous moment in human history (Graham, 1999). Sometimes after the crisis, Nikita Khrushchev recalls, I found myself in the difficult position of having to decide on a course of action which would answer the American threat but which would also avoid war.Ã Any fool can start a war, and once hes done so, even the wisest of men are helpless to stop it especially if itÃ¢â¬â¢s a nuclear war. (Gribkov Smith, 1986). The expiration of the World War II brought with it the advancement of science and technology. During the war itself, the German atomic scientists were encouraged o build nuclear ballistic weapons that was capable of destroying a whole city. Scientists from Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States came together in a bid to build a nuclear weapon. This was done under the code-name Ã¢â¬Å"Manhattan ProjectÃ¢â¬ . The project was sponsored by America and in July 1945, the first atomic bomb was made. Hiding under the guise of being ambushed during the World War II, America decided to continue the making of nuclear weapons and each one that was made was more dangerous than the previous. However, as it would appear, it was not only the American government that was amassing nuclear weapon, the Soviet Union was also producing nuclear bombs Ã¢â¬â although not as dangerous or powerful as the ones produced by America. In the scheme of things then, possession of nuclear power automatically makes you a threat to the world and untouchable to other nations. It was a guarantee for safety and it comes with such benefits of being regarded as a world power. America, by inference, was quickly becoming a force to reckon with and a predominant power in the world. The Cuban Missile Crisis itself was an accumulation of the friction between the American government and the revolutionary government of Fidel Castro. Before the Cuban Revolution of 1959, America enjoyed a great deal of influence on the economy and politics of Cuba (Encarta, 2008). However, this changed under the government of Fidel Castro. Castro refused to be influenced by America instead he formulated policies that gave the American government a reason to be concerned. He seized the property of wealthy Cubans and those of foreigners, who were mostly Americans, in a bid to establish a communist system in Cuba. This resulted in the placement of an economic embargo on Cuba. This cut any form of trade between America and Cuba. Instead of giving in, Castro decided to establish a better relationship with the communist nations. During this period, there was a cold war between the American government and the USSR Ã¢â¬â a war between communists and capitalist nations. In an attempt to overthrow CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s government, the American government decided to establish relations with Cubans that were against CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s government. The American government trained and supplied ammunitions to anti-Castro Cubans that sought refuge in America. In 1961, these anti-Castro agitators invaded Cuba in the Bay of Pigs. This invasion was not successful and as it turned out, it consolidated CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s government. Cubans were infuriated with the U.S government because of its interference with political issues in Cuba and as a result gave their full allegiance to Fidel CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s communist government. With Fidel Castro formal declaration that Cuba was a communist nation, the tension between the American government and Fidel Castro intensified. At the same time, Soviet prime minister, Nikita Khrushchev began a plot to secretly deliver nuclear weapons to Cuba. This plan was welcomed by Fidel Castro who wants to use the opportunity to protect his island following the threat of the Bay of Pigs. The Soviet premier devised this plan in order to avert any attack that might be launched against the Soviet Union. This plan was meant to be privy to the United States government. Khrushchev did this on the assumption that this action would go unnoticed by the American government. With both parties fighting a common enemy, an arrangement was made for the quick installation of missiles in Cuba without drawing attention of the United States government. Looking at the crisis from the perspective of the United States government, the crisis began on October 15, 1962 after a U-2 spy plane and U.S. Navy low-level reconnaissance aircraft took photographs of Soviet missiles which was under construction in Cuba. The following morning, the matter was brought to the notice of President John F. Kennedy who immediately formed the EX-COMM. This group consisted of the twelve advisory members who were considered the most competent in handling the issue. President John F. Kennedy decided that the EX-COMM meetings should be held secretly so as not to make the Soviet Union suspect that the United States was fully aware of the situation. After seven days of difficult and long secret meetings, President John F. Kennedy openly announced the discovery of the missile installation 90 miles aware from the shores of Florida. Although President John F. Kennedy was presented with evidence based information that posed a threat on major cities like New York, Chicago and Los Angeles, he knew the situation was a complex one which called for a tactical solution. He was faced with a situation with potentially severe consequences. However, he could not decide the course of action to be taken against Cuba or the Soviet Union. Although America in 1962 can be said to be the predominant world nuclear power, Kennedy and his advisors knew that launching an attack could turn into a nuclear war that could turn into another World War. On the other hand, the Soviet Union posed a threat if America folds its arms and does nothing (Encarta, 2008). The predicament, as Kennedy conceived it, was severe. After several sessions of hot deliberation, President John F. Kennedy and his advisers came to a concession that a blockade would be the right course of action to take. Although they did not all have the same reasons for supporting the blockade, they agreed to the fact that a full military invasion would be risky given the situation of things. On October 22, 1962, President John F. Kennedy openly announced that the Soviet Union should get rid of all the missile bases and their harmful contents. He also ordered a Ã¢â¬Å"naval quarantine (blockade) of Cuba in order to prevent Russian ships from bringing additional missiles and construction materials to the islandÃ¢â¬ (hpol.org, 1990). For several days, the world watched in fear as the crisis intensified. The American government waited for the course of action to be taken by the soviet premier. This is because a blockade, in military terms, was considered an art of war. Although President John F. Kennedy claimed the action was a naval quarantine, Kennedy and his advisers were not certain of how the Soviet Union will conceive of such action (Encarta, 2008). During this period, several soviet ships turned back to from the quarantine line but the missile installation continued. However, on October 26, 1962, the crisis took a new turn with Khrushchev sending a coded cable to Kennedy, offering to withdraw the missiles from Cuba on the condition that United States would not attack the Island of Cuba. Early the next day, President John F. Kennedy agreed to the terms of Khrushchev.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Drama Essays Women in Comedy The Changing Role of Women in Comedy. How has comedy between 1950 to 2000 been used by female performers to highlight the oppression and objectification of women in society? What impact has this had on the contemporary female comedian of today? Introduction Overview Chapter One: A Sense of the Times 1950s 1960s 1970s-1980s Chapter Two: WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËSenseÃ¢â¬â¢ of Humour Chapter Three: Issues in Stand-up Comedy Being a Woman Traditional Gender Expectations Aggressiveness Sexuality and Femininity Issues of Power and Control Modes of Stand-up Comedy Self-Deprecation in WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Humour Self-deprecation in the work of Phyllis Diller and Joan Rivers The domestic goddess Conclusion: The 1990s and Beyond: The Future of Women in Stand-up Comedy Reference List Introduction Comedy is a form of expression which stretches and sometimes breaks boundaries. It crosses all kinds of boundaries, including those of gender. It can be risky because it often ridicules social and moral conventions in a way that challenges and threatens accepted norms, threatening the status quo. This is particularly true of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s comedy. This paper will examine the way that comedy has been used by female performers during the period from 1950 to 2000, focusing on the themes of oppression and objectification of women in society. It will also analyze the ways in which the experiences of these five decades have affected contemporary female comics. Chapter One gives a general overview of each decade, to explain the political and social climates of that time as a framework for examining the changes in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles. Included will be examples of different women comics whose experiences best represent selected aspects of that time frame. This will be followed by an analysis of what people mean when they talk of a Ã¢â¬Ësense of humourÃ¢â¬â¢ what, exactly, is a sense of humour? Do women have a different sense of humour than men? Most of the literature about women comics touches on this question on some level; some of the literature goes into a great deal of depth. This is frequently done to respond to the assertion that has been made, repeatedly over the years, that women Ã¢â¬ËdonÃ¢â¬â¢t have a sense of humourÃ¢â¬â¢. This statement has been made most frequently by men. However, this same assertion has at times been leveled (often in an accusatory manner) by women toward other women. Chapter One:Ã Ã A Sense of the Times A. The Decade of the 1950s Ã The decade of the 1950s was a time of great change. Britain was entering a period of increased affluence and freedom, and many of the old social and cultural structures began to be challenged, particularly by the young. In Hollywood, as well as throughout the United States and North America, post-war sentiment lingered on and mingled with the confusion that accompanies times of great change. In some places, such as Britain, this turmoil was exemplified by a tendency to pull away from formal religion. In the United States, this period was an era of economic growth mixed with a sense of conservation. At the same time, there seemed to be a professed belief in the old values; however, this belief was tinged with doubt. According to one scholar, the professed belief was Ã¢â¬Ëmixed with a sense of unease that maybe the old values no longer held all the answersÃ¢â¬â¢ (Sova, 1998, 106). According to critics Linda Martin and Kerry Segrave, the portrayal of women during the 1950s was generally considered to be negative. Women actors and performers were mostly typecast as Ã¢â¬Ëdumb, ugly man-chasers or some image thereofÃ¢â¬â¢ (Martin and Segrave, 1986, 203). Some notable performers of comedy of this period include Judy Holliday, Lucille Ball, Phyllis Diller, and Joan Rivers. Blond comedian Judy Holliday, who had been appearing in films as early as the 1940s, continued to so do in the 1950s. She even managed to become a film comedy star in the 1950s, a feat that even Lucille Ball did not manage. Sova asserts that Holliday Ã¢â¬Ëwent for the laughs in an innocent mannerÃ¢â¬â¢, something which worked well for her in the 1950s, but which did not work for Ball either then or later (Sova, 1998, 120Ã¢â¬â121). Holliday and Ball were similar in that they both played both straight drama, and then switched over later on to a comedic format. Ball, however, was not a larger-than-life presence on the silver screen, and she failed to attract the kind of interest that Holliday did. Hence, she never reached stardom on a cinematic level. Still, Ball is perhaps a more familiar name, even to this day. She went on to revolutionize television with her comedy partner and husband Desi Arnaz. In so doing, it may be said that Lucille Ball set the standard for what was then a fairly new genre, the situational comedy. Phyllis Diller is another comedian who became known during this period, and has remained known to this day. Ã¢â¬ËDiller transcended Ã¢â¬Å"comediennesÃ¢â¬ of the day, if not femaleness itself, by announcing her arrival in the mid-1950s in the most outlandish manner imaginable,Ã¢â¬â¢ asserts a contemporary of hers. He goes on to describe her entrance onto the stage:Ã Ã¢â¬ËShe landed onstage like a flightless goony bird wielding her cigarette holder, piercing the nightclub air with her manic squawk, all beak and beady chicken eyes, and dressed in a deliberately garish getupÃ¢â¬â¢ (Nachman, 2003, 216). Susan Horowitz points out that Diller came out of the 1950s, Ã¢â¬Ëa period which stressed and exaggerated sexÃ¢â¬ârole differencesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Horowitz, 1997, 50). In addition, it is significant to note that at the time Diller entered the profession of comedy in the mid 1950s female comics were practically non-existent. Commenting on her career as a whole, Horowitz asserts that Ã¢â¬Ëboth DillerÃ¢â¬â¢s subject matter sex appeal and domestic competence and the manner in which she handles it self-deprecation are DillerÃ¢â¬â¢s comedic take on the stereotypical 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s womanÃ¢â¬â¢ (Horowitz, 1987, 62). This decade also ushered in Joan Rivers, who is described by a colleague as arriving upon the scene Ã¢â¬Ëwith forked tongue and sharpened talons. . . [she] bit and clawed her way to comic success and has clung to it for dear lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Nachman, 2003, 592). RiversÃ¢â¬â¢ comedic approach has been described as Ã¢â¬Ëa jolt of contrastsÃ¢â¬â¢: her rapid-fire manner of talking, combined with her wide variation of topics, kept her audience members on their toes. Her comedic style is often attributed to background: she drifted between social classes, never feeling truly comfortable in any one category. Horowitz has described her as Ã¢â¬Ëboth an insider and an outsider, classy and dÃ ©classÃ © the private school student whose family cannot pay the bills; the wealthy celebrity whose act mocks the elite; the elegant lady who talks about farts and poopingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Horowitz, 1997, 93). Yet not even the most outrageous comedy act could compete with television. The growth of this televisionÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity had a strong impact on every aspect of society. Television had very quickly become more popular than radio, replacing it as the preferred form of entertainment in the home. In addition, more and more people began to have television sets in their homes. The proliferation of television brought with it a change in style. Martin and Segrave explain that Ã¢â¬Ëwhere radio relied on women mangling the language, television, in keeping with its visual nature, relied more on physical sight gags to convey Ã¢â¬Å"dumbnessÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢. Thus, this period hallmarked the combination of the dumb, blonde, buxom stereotype. At least on television, as opposed to radio, women were able to articulate clearly (Martin and Segrave, 1986, 204). B.Ã The 1960s The movement away from the conservative fifties began and continued throughout the turbulent 60s in America. Revolutionary ways of thinking spread rapidly, and real change transformed the cultural fabric of American life.Ã During this decade, consumption continued in Britain, but had become less connected with utilitarian needs, and more to do with status and comfort. For women comics, however, the first half of the 1960s was one of the least productive in their history. Although in Hollywood the film industry was opening up more for women, the field of comic stand-up seemed to be at a standstill. Martin and Segrave do point out that there was at least one positive image in American humor to welcome the new decade. This one exception was Elaine May. Elaine May was an example, and she represented what women could accomplish when given a fair and equal opportunity. May, according to Martin and Segrave, Ã¢â¬Ëprovided a sample of what was to follow as more and more female comics cast off the old images and stereotypes and broadened and extended their place in the field of humorÃ¢â¬â¢ (1986, 206). What was noteworthy about MayÃ¢â¬â¢s performance is that she did not try to look ugly, the way so many women comics of this period seemed to do. In addition, she did not rely on self-deprecation the way other female comics did. She and Nichols shared an equal partnership another rare thing at this time. Ordinarily the woman would play a foil to showcase the other, male, part of the duo. Among the comics who started to become know during this time, one was Carol Burnett. According to Martin and Segrave, Burnett Ã¢â¬Ërepresented a performer who straddled the line between independence and submissivenessÃ¢â¬â¢ (1986, 308). This was no easy task, given the hostile climate the world of comedy offered women. Horowitz points out that BurnettÃ¢â¬â¢s style at this time was marked by self-deprecation: Ã¢â¬ËBurnettÃ¢â¬â¢s self-deprecating humor was typical of comediennes of the late 1950s and early 1960s, and it served to soften audience resistance to the notion of an assertively funny womanÃ¢â¬â¢ (Horowitz, 1997, 69). Dave Tebert, the man who ran the talent department at NBC in the early 1960s, asserted that women were given the same opportunities as men, but that Ã¢â¬Ëthey were not aggressive enough or forceful enough to deal with the drunks and hecklers often found in the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢ (Martin and Segrave, 1986, 18).In addition, Bob Shanks, the talent coordinator for the Paar show, made an attempt to find female comics. Over a three-year period, however, he interviewed 500 women; only twenty of them were considered good enough to pass. He commented that Ã¢â¬Ëthe wit was missingÃ¢â¬â¢ or that the women lacked Ã¢â¬Ëquickness of responseÃ¢â¬â¢ (Martin and Segrave, 1986, 19). Comedy was performance arising from skill and wit, and performance was a male role. Funny girls would not be asked out on datesÃ¢â¬â¢ assert Martin and Segrave (1986, 19). Being popular in school, having a date to the prom, being seen as attractive and compliant these qualities were valued in young women and girls. Being clever and witty key qualities for a comic, were not valued. There, most women of the time felt that given a choice, comedy should be submerged. When men make clever jokes at womenÃ¢â¬â¢s expense, they may be considered great, insightful comics, assert Martin and Segrave. On the other hand, women who do the same at the expense of men may be labeled such derogatory terms as Ã¢â¬Ëball-busters or man-hatersÃ¢â¬â¢. In fact, Ã¢â¬Ëwomen are not even safe poking fun at other women. They are considered anti-female or cattyÃ¢â¬â¢ citing Joan Rivers as an example of this (Martin and Segrave, 1986, 20). C.Ã Ã 1970sÃ¢â¬â1980s Ã The 1970s was a time of gradual change. According to some, Ã¢â¬Ëthe decade of the 1970s was one of slow but steady growth in the number of women entering or reentering facets of the film industry that had been closed to them for decadesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Sova, 1998, 153). Laugh-In hadhit the airwaves at the end of the 1960s, and once it was firmly entrenched, it showcased a variety of women comics. In fact, it was the first time that so many comedians had so much exposure since the days of vaudeville. Laugh-in helped a number of comics to get exposure and start careers. Among these were Goldie Hawn, Ruth Buzzi, JoAnne Worley, Lily Tomlin. Lily Tomlin brought some unique skills to the industry through her intelligence and creativity. She did this through the creation of new comic characters. In addition, she was able to perform several well-received stage concerts. Her film career has been less successful; this may be partly due to the poor selection of roles she has been given. The beginning of the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement in America in the late 1960s and early 1970s of course had an effect on women in comedy throughout the United States and Britain. Comedians who began to appear during this time include Bette Midler, Sandra Bernhard, Madeleine Kahn, and Marilyn Sokol. Laugh-In continued to display women comics. In addition, shows like Shows like Saturday Night Live and SCTV helped start the careers of such comedians as Gilda Radner and Andrea Martin. The 1980s did not see much improvement. Ã¢â¬ËComediennes with anything to say were being labeled Ã¢â¬Å"hostileÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"too masculineÃ¢â¬ (Martin and Segrave, 1986, 312). The most phenomenal rise, however, was the unprecedented number of women who had begun to appear in comedy clubs as stand-up comics. These new women comics dealt with womenÃ¢â¬â¢s issues, such as fashion, menstruation, weight, hygiene, being single, sex and relationships. These topics were often part of the self-deprecating humor that continued to mark womenÃ¢â¬â¢s humor through the remainder of the century. During this time, it should be noted that very few minority women appeared in this profession. The great exception was Moms Mabley, who managed to overcome exceptional obstacles in gaining acceptance in the world of primarily white male entertainers. Chapter 2 WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËSenseÃ¢â¬â¢ of Humour In their 1986 volume Women in Comedy, Linda Martin and Kerry Segrave assert that female comics are a rare commodity. The explanation for this, they assert, lies in the commonly held belief that Ã¢â¬Ëwomen are just not funny they donÃ¢â¬â¢t laugh at jokes, nor do they create themÃ¢â¬â¢. To support their assertion, Martin and Segrave describe a magazine article written in 1951. A writer named Robert Allen wrote an article about women and humor for MacleanÃ¢â¬â¢s. Allen bemoaned the fact that women never seemed to know when to laugh at a joke, or they often failed to laugh at all. He claimed he had experimented at home, and that he used different kinds and different styles of humor, but that his Ã¢â¬ËsubjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ never seemed to get the jokes. To be fair, he said he tested people outside his own home, including a Ã¢â¬ËvarietyÃ¢â¬â¢ of other females. Still, he got the same results with that group. After all this, he stated that the only conclusion he could draw was that women have no sense of humor (Martin and Segrave, 1986, 16-17). It is interesting to note that it never occurred to Allen that he might be the one who was not Ã¢â¬Ëgetting itÃ¢â¬â¢. It also interesting to note that AllenÃ¢â¬â¢s article was considered important enough to eventually make it into ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Digest as a condensed piece but this did not happen until thirteen years later. Considering the fact that most ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Digest condensed articles appear within months of the original publication, a lag time of thirteen years is rather remarkable. As Martin and Segrave suggest, Ã¢â¬Ëthis illustrated perhaps the timelessness of the idea and the need to present it again in a different decade, to a new audience just at a period when the image of the female comic was beginning to be liberatedÃ¢â¬â¢ (1986, 17). The humorist James Thurber, writing contemporaneously with Allen, wrote a piece in which he addressed an anonymous Miss G.H., who had sent him some unsolicited comedy material. He responded to her material by suggesting that she Ã¢â¬Ëbecome a bacteriologist, or a Red-Cross nurse, or a Wave, like all the other girlsÃ¢â¬â¢. The most scathing criticism at the time, however, came from a woman. Sarel Eimerl wrote in a November 1962 issue of Mademoiselle that Ã¢â¬Ëa woman who really makes one laugh is about as easy to find as a pauper taking his Sunday brunch in the Edwardian RoomÃ¢â¬â¢ (Martin and Segrave, 1986, 17). It appears that in the 1950s and beyond, women were thought mostly by men, but also some women to be lacking a sense of humor. That belief has not been completely eradicated to this day. In her essay Ã¢â¬ËGender and HumourÃ¢â¬â¢, Lizbeth Goodman analyzes the following joke from Banks and SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s 1987 book on comedy:Question: How many feminists does it take to screw in a light bulb?Answer: ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s not funny. Goodman goes on to explain that although the idea of the joke is simple, that there is a great deal more going on. This joke is, in fact, Ã¢â¬Ëan example of an accessible and non-valorized form of social critique, which functions as a mirror of the values of the dominant cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ (Goodman, 1992a, 287). It is also interesting to note that this joke is familiar to us. It has been repeated any number of times in recent years, each time with some detail changed. Often the change is in the choice of target. Different minority groups may be featured as the target, depending on the context of the telling. Therefore, the teller of the joke is implicitly stating that women, too, are a Ã¢â¬ËminorityÃ¢â¬â¢. According to Goodman, Ã¢â¬Ëthat women are singled out as a Ã¢â¬Å"minorityÃ¢â¬ group, despite the majority of women in society, is indicative of the male bias of society and its valuesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Goodman, 1992a, 288). Horowitz points out that, like other groups that have suffered discrimination, women are classified as a minority group by affirmative action programs; however, Ã¢â¬Ëunlike ethnic minorities, women are a numerical majorityÃ¢â¬â¢ (Horowitz, 1997, 8). Goodman also points out that the fact that women are so frequently targeted in jokes in western culture is significant in itself:Ã Ã¢â¬Ëthat women are so often the butt of jokes in western culture says a great deal about that cultureÃ¢â¬â¢. It reveals, for example, that the jokers are usually men. It also reveals that the listeners are deeply immersed in the patriarchal culture. In fact, Goodman takes this a step further. She points out that the listeners are steeped in the patriarchal culture Ã¢â¬Ëto the extent that certain types of responses are Ã¢â¬Å"genderedÃ¢â¬ : for instance, loud laughter as opposed to quiet hand-over-the-mouth gigglesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Goodman, 1992a, 288). Another way to analyze this joke, Goodman suggests, is to take into consideration the fact that the value of the joke does not lie solely within the joke itself. Rather, its value depends on other factors. One of these factors is the context of the telling; the other is the interpretation of the hearer. She cites Adrienne RichÃ¢â¬â¢s 1979 reinterpretation of the joke, explaining that doing so Ã¢â¬Ërequires an awareness of the context of the jokeÃ¢â¬â¢s production and an ability to decontextualize the joke mentallyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Goodman, 1992a, 288). By doing this, the joke can be interpreted in such a way that it is not an insult to women, or an insult to feminism. Instead, it becomes a critique of the simplistic notions that are commonly held about women in society and especially about women who are feminists. This ultimately brings us to the rhetorical question about women and humour: do women have a sense of humour? Linda Naranjo-Huebl answers this in the affirmative. She also includes an explanation of how this humor is different. Ã¢â¬ËOne of the common findings of all the gender and humor studies is that there does in fact exist something that can be identified as womens humorÃ¢â¬â¢, she asserts. She then explains that it is a Ã¢â¬ËdistinctÃ¢â¬â¢ form of humor, Ã¢â¬Ëcharacteristic of and arising from womens experience that serves distinct communicative functions associated with that experienceÃ¢â¬â¢ (Naranjo-Huebl, 2005, web). Linda Naranjo-Huebl asserts that Ã¢â¬Ëthe stereotype of the humorless female has stubbornly persisted, reinforced by studies concluding that women use humor less often than menÃ¢â¬â¢. She puts forth three theories to explain why this stereotype has persisted for so long. The first explanation has to do with womenÃ¢â¬â¢s use of language. Women are generally brought up to be polite, and the language of humour is often impolite. In addition, humour tends to be aggressive, and women have traditionally been discouraged from expressing any sort of open aggression. The second explanation for the continuation of this stereotype is that Ã¢â¬Ëmuch of womens humor has been either censored or misinterpretedÃ¢â¬â¢ (Naranjo-Hueblo, web). That is to say, women do have a sense of humour, but it has largely gone unrecognized a situation which is still being rectified today. Not only have examples of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s humour been censored and misinterpreted, but also the methodology of the studies has frequently been flawed. The methods used, primarily those created by men, tend to favor male forms of humor. The results then falsely Ã¢â¬ËproveÃ¢â¬â¢ that women lack a sense of humour. Naranjo-Hueblo explains one such study, in which 250 undergraduate business students from a major university were asked to answer questions regarding a hypothetical situation. The situation consisted of the students pretending that they were with a colleague; the colleague is carrying a briefcase which suddenly becomes open, resulting in papers flying all over the place. The students are then asked how they would respond: would they ignore the episode and keep on walking? Would they assist the colleague by stopping to help pick up the papers? Or would they tease the colleague or in some other way express humour? Each student was allowed to choose only one response. As one might expect, the majority of men chose to respond with humour, while the majority of women chose to help. This creators of the study assumed that one couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be helpful and humorous at the same time. Furthermore, it led them to conclude that women did not have as great a sense of humour as men. Naranjo-Hueblo points out the choices do not include the possibility that women may be humorous about the situation as they are assisting their colleague. Furthermore, Ã¢â¬Ëanother problem with the study is that it posits humor as a one-line quip in a slapstick situation, which is not womens preferred form of humor (Naranjo-Huebl, web). The third reason women have been found to lack a sense of humour is that humour has largely been defined by men. Women find humour in different sources, often preferring word jokes and puns as well as stories, whereas men prefer much more derisive forms of humour. Ã¢â¬ËIt has always been more acceptable for masculine styles to influence feminine ones, rather than vice versa. . . The powerless take on the trappings of the powerfulÃ¢â¬â¢ (Horowitz, 1997, 9). Chapter Three: Issues in Stand-up Comedy Being a woman Traditional gender expectations Aggressiveness Sexuality and Femininity Power and Control Issues Modes of Stand-up Comedy Self-Deprecation in WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Humour Self-deprecation in the work of Phyllis Diller and Joan Rivers The domestic goddess A.Ã Being a Woman As stated earlier, comedy is a form of expression which stretches and sometimes breaks boundaries. This is very true in the case of stand-up comedy. Stand-up comedy ridicules the norms of society. It challenges convention, and it questions moral views. in particular has a tradition of ridiculing moral, social, and political conventions. The stand-up comedian is frequently considered as existing on the fringes of mainstream society. For any stand-up comedian, male or female, a number of factors come into play when they are in front of an audience. What race are they? What is their ethnic background? What is their sexual orientation, or what does it appear to be? Are they disabled, and is that uncomfortable for the audience member? When you add gender into the mix, it becomes that much more unpredictable. The reaction the audience gives to a female stand-up is much different to the one they would give to her male counterpart. The audience seems to expect a man to be funny. When confronted with a female stand-up, they suspend judgment until she can prove that she is funny. B.Ã Traditional Gender Expectations Traditional gender expectations are also a very important issue for women comics. Conventional definitions of Ã¢â¬Ëlady-likeÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior are an obstacle. Conventional definitions of what it means to be Ã¢â¬ËfeminineÃ¢â¬â¢ or to act Ã¢â¬Ëlady-likeÃ¢â¬â¢ are incongruent with the often-inappropriate behavior of women in comedy. This is particularly true of such forms of comedy as stand-up routines. In stand-up comedy, women comics cannot be passive and demure on stage, for this behavior will not elicit laughter. Instead, they must be aggressive, sometimes loud, and frequently un-ladylike. They must completely break with accepted social conventions. Bucking these conventions is difficult for a number of reasons, not the least of which is economic profit. Gender expectations are reinforced, especially by mainstream corporate media, because they are tied into money. The objectification of women Ã¢â¬Ëis a central factor in the sale of commodities, another pillar of the competitive systemÃ¢â¬â¢ (Sakeris, 2001, 227). Women comics by definition break barriers and defy convention. By so doing, they present a number of different challenges to mainstream society, and especially to that portion of mainstream society which will ultimately suffer financially. In addition, notes Sakeris, Ã¢â¬Ëthe ghettoization of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s work and the provision of necessary, but unpaid, labor in the home all supported by our processes of gender socialization are central to a capitalist economy as wellÃ¢â¬â¢ (Sakeris, 2001, 227). C.Ã Aggressiveness Another aspect that must be considered is the aggressiveness involved in stand-up comedy. Stand-up comedy can be viewed as an aggressive act. In the attempt to elicit laughter, it can be said that the comic is trying to exert control over her audience. Thus, it can be seen as a power struggle. Because of the power associated with the successful use of humor, humor initiation has become associated with other traditionally masculine characteristics, such as aggression, dominance, and assertiveness. For a female to develop into a clown or joker, then, she must violate the behavioral pattern normally reserved for women (Naranjo-Huebl, 2005, web). This is in direct opposition to the passiveness that society traditionally expects of women. To get up on stage and act aggressively is something that goes against traditional norms and is therefore suspect. Being female means acting demurely, being subservient while remaining unobtrusive. When a female gets up on stage and performs as a comic, she is aggressive, actively engaging the participants, and demanding for attention.Ã Ã Womens humour is frequently interpreted as a challenge. This is naturally due to the aggressive nature of stand-up comedy, especially in an audience, which will most probably be comprised primarily of men. Too much aggression can be alienating in the best of situations. When too much aggression is exhibited by a female, the threat is compounded. It can appear to males that this female interloper is trying to seize what they think of as their territory Ã¢â¬ËmaleÃ¢â¬â¢ territory. This can be disastrous for an act, eventually for a career. As several researchers have pointed out, comedy is an aggressive activity, and it requires performers to be hard and women are not supposed to be hard. Ã¢â¬ËBeing pervasively nice is not conducive to comedy which requires satire and ridicule. Women who do break through into comedy are branded with all sorts of unpleasant labels, such as strident, dyke, or frustratedÃ¢â¬â¢ (Martin and Segrave, 20). D.Ã Sexuality and Femininity Ã Another issue, and one which is vitally important, is that of sexuality. Even if she is not talking about sex in her act, this is an issue. The question of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality and her sense of femininity are undeniably central issues to the professional woman comic. What is the connection between comic appeal, sex appeal, and our notions of what is feminine? Mother, virgin, prostitute: these are the social roles imposed on women. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The characteristics of (so-called) feminine sexuality derive from them: the valorization of reproduction and nursing; faithfulness; modesty, Ã ignorance of and even lack of interest in sexual pleasure; a passive acceptance of menÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËactivityÃ¢â¬â¢; seductiveness, in order to arouse the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ desire while offering herself as its material support without getting pleasure herselfÃ¢â¬â¢ (Irigary, 1985, 63-4).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Some would go as far as to see parallels between the act of standup comedy and the act of sex. For example, Horowitz asserts that Ã¢â¬Ësexuality can be loving, mutual vulnerability as can comedy (Horowitz, 1997, 12). Horowitz and others have suggested that there is an intimacy in the relationship between the comic and her audience that is not unlike the intimacy between lovers. There are varying levels of frankness in different stand-up routines. This may be seen as mirroring the sexual frankness of the male stand-up comedian. However, it is accepted less easily. As Horowitz points out, Ã¢â¬Ëfemale comics are expected to go far but not too farÃ¢â¬â¢ (Horowitz, 1997, 17).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã E.Ã Power and Control Issues Humour is often used as a means of controlling social situations. In a highly volatile set of circumstances, humour can often defuse the threat by helping to ease the tension. By using humour this way, dangerous explosions of temper can be averted without forcing confrontations. Yet since the end result is the same the situation is brought to a halt by peaceful means this also means that humour exerts a kind of power. The dynamics of power are complex and can be difficult to negotiate. These dynamics are further complicated when it comes to the case of self-deprecatory humour. The comic may seem to be relinquishing control by taking her own inadequacies and flaws and putting them out there on public display.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The 1974 adaptation of the critically acclaimed novel the Great Gatsby is directed by Jack Clayton and screenwriten by Francis Ford Coppola, with Robert and Mia Farrow as leads. The two actors give excellent performances, and certainly portray the beautiful people they are made out to be in the book. One scene in particular that reflected that Redford was was chosen for this part was when the Nick and Gatsby are in suits and Nick is perspiring in is utterly unsuitable manner of dress for the weather, while Gatsby remains cool as usual, not shedding a drop of sweat. In addition Mia Farrow develops Daisy's flighty character nicely, and she makes you love her but hate her at the same time very well. Another aspect of the film I found impeccable was the scenery, which centres on the lives of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s decadent and spoiled. The scenery presents the idea that they have money than they need and they can do whatever they want whenever they want. Their scenery is a recreation of European historical grandeur, a fact that the film is keen to demonstrate. Symbolism in the movie was also awesome, I really appreciated how the director added a few twists of his own which I will come to shortly. Particularly memorable is the scene where Daisy weeps over Gatsby's shirts. Is she really weeping for their beauty ? This was really well done and hampered enough to make the viewers believe that someone could actually be so superficial. Also kudos to the director on the scene when the film visits the miserable gas-station home of Tom Buchanan's lover, Myrtle. Here the colour drains from the film, serving as a sharp contrast to the rainbow spectrum of the richÃ¢â¬â¢s world, where money reflects carelessness and happiness. Also recall that owning a dog seems to be the ultimate fashion accessory of the time. The film has dogs running everywhere, a reflection I'm sure on their owners. But see if you can glimpse the scruffy mongrel that steals food from a table at one of Gatsby's parties. Is this a reflection of how Gatsby got his fortune as suggest ed that he came upon it just like how the dog came across the food on the table. This was one metaphor I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t catch in the book and I credit to Francis Ford Coppola the screenwriter. Also the Clayton/ Coppola team portray the spectacles of T.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality The Afro-Cuban struggle for equality essentially began after the emancipation of the slaves in 1886. This struggle would continue until 1912, when a brutal government massacre ended their hopes of real equality. The Afro-Cuban struggle for equality was a key issue in CubaÃ¢â¬â¢s fight for independence, as well as, CubaÃ¢â¬â¢s fight to find its identity and character. The first attempt to unite the Afro-Cuban community was the formation of the Directorio Central de las Sociedades de la Raza de Color in 1887. This was the first black political party within Latin America. "The main focus of the struggle led by these Afro-Cubans and the Directorio was equal rights and equal protection under the law."  The Spanish did not see the Directorio in the same manner. They thought it was a tool, used by blacks and mulattos that used racism against whites in order for the black population to take over Cuba. When the black community said they wanted to be considered equals, the white community was hearing another Haiti. They feared that the black community was going to revolt against them and try to take over the whole country. This white fear was at the core of the equality issue and represents the white personÃ¢â¬â¢s main rejection of equality. The Afro-Cuban community tried to explain the Directorio by "explaining that the Directorio was not a black party uniting Afro-Cubans in a supposed hatred of whites. It was the opposite of a racist movement and struggled to suppress racism."  Afro-Cubans knew that they would never be accepted as equals with the white class, so they helped decided to help aid in the cause for independence of Cuba from Spain. They hoped that if they helped fight to win their countries independence, they would be able to achieve greater equality and a better role in society. Ã¢â¬ ¦their goal was probably not only independence from Spain but also the creation of a new society in which they would fully participate. Blacks rebelled against racism and inequality, landless peasants regardless of race stood up for land, popular cabecillas wanted political power, and orientales in general hoped to gain control of their regionÃ¢â¬â¢s destiny. The potential for the war to become a social revolution was strong indeed.  The war was a colorless one. Cubans fought next to Cubans. Cubans looked at the war as a new beginning.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Our love is to possess arms, though they hope never to have occasion for them.Ã¢â¬ Since this quote that Thomas Jefferson once said, guns and their capabilities have changed history throughout the world and have affected all most everyone living in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Gun control and gun polices have created an upheaval among a growing amount of nations. With increasing gun rate crime and the ease of accessibility to obtain firearms in some places in the world, states inside America and countries around the world have altered its stance on gun control and their laws. From strong gun control and strict trafficking in Germany, too little to very light restrictions and laws on firearms in Kentucky, guns, either way, are a controversial issue that todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society must face. The state of Kentucky is known around the United States to have laws that allow people to own, operate, and carry different firearms across the state. One of these lenient laws is of private sellers, who of any type of firearms, are not required to have background checks to buyers. This law is much different across the United States as almost all other states require either getting a background check or at least registering the gunÃ¢â¬â¢s that are bought. Another lenient law that the state of Kentucky has is that the regulation of unsafe and or assault weapons with large ammunition magazines is not required. This makes accessibility to more dangerous weapons easier for anyone interested in purchasing any type of firearm across the state. Along with its lenient laws, the state of Kentucky also ranks fourth out of the fifty states in crimes involving gunÃ¢â¬â¢s that were originally bought in the state, and twelfth out of the fifty states in homicide deaths with guns (Summary ... ... regarding gun regulation and gun control offer more protection than where gun laws would be more lenient. Addressing the issue would be to limit more types of guns, require background checks, and have more laws on trafficking firearms. With rapidly changing times and more innovations in new firearms being put into the market every day, nations around the world have to reconsider their own laws to protect their citizens from the dangers of guns. Works Cited Alpers, Philip and Marcus Wilson. 2011. Guns in Germany: Facts, Figures and Firearm Law. Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney. GunPolicy.org, 26 November. Accessed 26 January 2012. at: http://www.gunpolicy.org/firearms/region/germany Legal Community Against Violence. 2011. Summary of State Firearms. 26 January, 2012. http://www.lcav.org/states/kentucky.asp#AssaultWeapons
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
1. Introduction: This topic is geared towards the issue of racial discrimination. As a basis for the discussion, this topic will present a case of discrimination against Negro citizens and their right to vote. This case will show the conflicting roles which the different aspects of the government play in order to display an attempt to address this social problem. At the same time, this topic will show how the government can have no control over the forces within the society that have a far greater influence on the perspective of human beings. On the other hand, this topic will also show how the government can lose control due to forces within the society that have a greater influence on the perspective of human beings. These forces will be explained further and will manifest their role in the presented case to show how human beings can destroy the safeguards created by the government to counter discrimination. 2. Sociological Approach:(Structural Functionalist, Social Conflict, Symbolic Interaction) The material may be related to the Social Conflict theory. This is a theory that claims that people within a society vary on the amount of resources available to them, and the people with more resources are, by consequence, more powerful. These people use their power and available resources to exploit the people with less power. In the case of U.S. vs. Alabama et. al., the Board of Registrars and the District Court were the parties in power. The available resource the Board of Registrar had was in the form of political power which they intended to monopolize by not allowing the negro citizens a voice in the decision making process. The District Court had the resource of legal knowledge which it used to make an oppressive decision in favor of the Board of Registrars. The Negro citizens, so long as they were being denied of their power to vote, were also being denied of their opportunity to be represented so they can voice their grievances and uplift their standing in the society. The Symbolic Interaction theory may also be applicable to the material. This is a theory that claims that people deal with circumstances, people and other things depending on how much value these things have for them. These values are determined by interactions within the society and altered by individual interpretation. This theory can be applied to the way the District Court made its decision and how it interpreted the Civil Rights Act of 1957. If the District Court had allowed the declaratory and injunctive relief, this would mean the Board of Registrars could no longer continue their discriminatory activities. This might affect the very culture of Macon County where the Negro citizens right to vote was not the only problem. In the case of Lee vs. Macon County Board of Education (267 F. Supp 458,470-M.D. Ala 1967), there was another racial discrimination issue Ã¢â¬â segregation. Perhaps the District Court decided the way it did, and ignored the amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1957, in order to avoid wreaking havoc within a highly racist community. But what caused the prejudice within the Macon, Alabama county? In the absence of any details of what the Board of Registrars did and the effects of their actions, I will have to play safe and resort to the Culture Theory of Prejudice. This is the theory that claims that everyone is prejudiced because it is part of how we were raised. An example of this is when parents tell their children they need to marry someone of the same race. With regard to the norms within Macon county, I have sited another case on top of the material discussed here as a means of showing the norms. Discrimination was practiced and accepted, and the children growing up in that environment grow up believing that discrimination is right. The Board of Registrars and, probably even the district court, may have been composed of people who were born and raised in the same environment. Given that discrimination may be embedded in their system, it will take more than a legal amendment to change their ways. 3. Body: This case was filed by the United States for practices that deprived Negro citizens of their voting rights. The United States prayed for declaratory and injunctive relief from the 5th District Court with the Board of Registrars of an Alabama county (Macon) as defendants. The district court denied the petition on the following grounds: 1. The individual respondents were sued as Registrars. They resigned from their offices and could no longer be sued in their official capacities; 2. The Board of Registrars could not be sued; 3. The action was not authorized by the Civil Rights Act of 1957. The decision was affirmed by the Appeals court and paved the way for a petition for certiorari. The central argument for this case is based on the amendment of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 which authorized actions against the state? The Supreme Court ruled that the District Court had authority to hear the case by virtue of the amendment, and that such amendment had already taken effect before the case reached the Supreme Court. I think the decision of the Supreme Court appears discriminatory since it will compel the state to defend itÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to stop discrimination. But, from a legal standpoint, what the Supreme Court merely did was acknowledge the right of the public to question actions effected by the state. This is a necessary safeguard for democracy to thrive. Unfortunately, what was being questioned was an action for a good cause Ã¢â¬â to stop the proliferation of racial discrimination. The above ruling implies that the government may be subjected to legal attacks even when it is making an effort to stand up for the rights of itÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens who they suspect are being oppressed by the majority. The more positive implication with the Supreme Court ruling is that the state is not infallible and the decisions made by the people in itÃ¢â¬â¢s government mat be questioned. The option to question the state is still relevant today. The government is composed of mere mortals who have made mistakes in the past and will most likely continue to make mistakes in the future. It should be comforting to the society to know that they can demand for the correction of these mistakes rather than simply surrender to the decisions of a higher power even when such decisions are detrimental to their interests. However, the right to vote has long become moot and academic, at least in the New World. This is a right that is already widely granted to citizens regardless of their race. If there is any discrimination issue that surrounds voting and elections, it may be the amount of confidence that people will put on a candidate who belongs to a minority, and if people vote for candidates simply because they are white even when there is a more promising candidate of color. 4. Conclusion: This topic centered on the social implications of discrimination. The case zeroes in on the right to vote among Negro citizens as an example of racial discrimination. This case showed the intent of the government to ease the discrimination. The case also showed the legal impediments that stand in the way of the government in itÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to make sure that all itÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens are given equal rights. But this topic also showed that discrimination stems from the attitude of human beings, which in turn is developed by their different experiences within the society. The negativity in their attitude may be aggravated by their social standing and the resources that are available to them. These are factors that the government cannot control without also controlling the amount of freedom that their citizens are entitled to.
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