Monday, February 24, 2020
Virtual Meeting Report - Assignment Example I attended a virtual meeting as the chairperson of the group, and used programs such as Google doc. The main items under discussion in our agenda were team evaluation and team contact (Guffey & Loewy, 2010). Since virtual meetings do not require physical presence of participants of meeting, maintenance of team cooperation and solidarity is on compromise, hence the main agendas on team evaluation and team contact. Evaluation of the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s performance determines the level of active participation and contribution of an individual to a group virtual meeting. On the other hand, team contact brings about cooperation and support from members in a team. These two are very elusive aspects of a virtual meeting as opposed to a conventional meeting where participants of the meeting meet at a single location, and carry out one-on-one discussions on their agendas. Using Google doc to conduct our meeting was instrumental in facilitating our communication and exchange of opinions for each item of the agenda. The site provides a suitable platform for every member of the group to participate actively in the discussions of the day, especially considering the efficient performance of the website. The Google doc website is a very promising platform for holding virtual meetings. This is due to the universal presence of the site, and as such, any member of the group can participate and contribute their ideas to the meeting. In addition, this is also necessary in ensuring effective performance of all members during a meeting. The platform allows for fast and effective responses of each member of group in a meeting, and every member gets to know who is speaking at a particular time to avoid interferences and disturbances during the meeting. This is a very effective program in building and developing the teamwork of my group as all members know how well to use
Friday, February 7, 2020
Rhetorical Analysis Essay - Assignment Example Richard Cohen, in his article Ã¢â¬Å"The Dangers of Labeling TerrorismÃ¢â¬ brings out various perceptions about the role of US in Islam states conflicts. This paper shall present a rhetoric analysis of CohenÃ¢â¬â¢s article. Global conflicts are seen to be closely tied to religion and balance of power politics. Based on the consistency of outcomes, the author argues that there is little logic in all US involvement in foreign conflicts. He sees no need for US to continue with a trend, which does not bring positive results. For instance, he cites all the countries like Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan as some of the countries that have not realized peace despite to US intervention. In fact, in such places, the US could have reasoned logically to let those countries managed their affairs without any interference. Cohen also feels that the fact that USÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention in Iraqi affairs to save besieged Yazidis is another move that was not logically well thought out. He may be seen to take this position with the understanding that no other state should meddle with other countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ political affairs (Cohen 1). In addition, he feels that Barack ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s position in the Islamic conflicts is logical. He argues that Obama does not see a blank cover of generalized criminal acts perpetrated by Muslim faithful as Islamic Terrorism. He notes that Obama is right to observe that terrorism by some Islamic states, which does not reflect true Islam, should not be generalized to the entire Muslim world. Religious scholars all over the world may support this claim. That is because many scholars have noted that the original Islam has been corrupted. This corruption, in many cases, has led to the lack of tolerance. Besides that, the corrupted Islam has led the emergence of radical sects within Islam. Thus, the author rightly maintains that ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s position is logical, as it does not
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Panama Canal Essay The topic that will be researched and analyzed in the following essay has to do with the Imperialist Era in the United States. The question is: Ã¢â¬Å"To what extend did the Panama Canal lead to our success as Imperialists? Ã¢â¬ The aspects I will be researching are the history of the Panama Canal, the problems related to it, and the consequences that lead to our success as Imperialists. In general, my method of investigation was a bibliographical research, based on information found in books and on the internet. As resources I used both primary and secondary sources. First, I have a database article from Texas Digital Library, and secondly I used an IB Diploma Programme Book called Ã¢â¬Å"History of the AmericansÃ¢â¬ published by the Oxford University and written by Y. Berliner, T. Leppard, A. Mamaux, M. D. Rogers and D. Smith. Also, I based my essay on a book from a historian called Kenneth C. Davis. The bookÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t know much about HistoryÃ¢â¬ , and it was a New York Times bestseller. Furthermore, I used another article by an historian called Sarah Jane Gilbert. The article has the title Ã¢â¬Å"Panama Canal: Troubled History, Astounding TurnaroundÃ¢â¬ . The primary source I found was a letter from President Roosevelt to the Senate and House of Representatives that is called Ã¢â¬Å"Message to Congress after Returning from the Canal Zone in PanamaÃ¢â¬ . The idea for the Panama Canal was very old, almost since Balboa stood on the cliffs of Darien in modern Panama. In fact, in 1880 a French group led by Ferdinand de Lesseps put together a company with the capital of thousands of investors to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, back then still part of Colombia. But corruption, miserable engineering plans and the harsh realities of the Central American jungle with its rainy season floods, earthquakes, yellow fever and malaria doomed de LessepsÃ¢â¬â¢ effort. After thousands of deaths and a little excavating, the French company had to abandon the jungle and left all the equipment behind. However, since there was some trouble with Cuba, the navy had to be sent from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic. The ship took 2 month to finally arrive and fight against Cuba. But that was taking way too long. In 1903, Theodore Roosevelt then decided to give the canal a second chance. After taking the decision of continuing the French canal and not building a new one in Nicaragua, the United States had purchased the rights to build the canal. Nevertheless, the territory also needed to be bought. Since Panama had been under the control of Colombia, the US Secretary of State John Hay negotiated that the US would lease the land for 100 years, pay $10 million for the lease and $250,000 a year for the duration of the lease. But the Colombian government rejected this offer. Since Roosevelt was known for his big stick policy, he helped the Panamanians revolutionize and also sent weapons and the US Navy to Panama. Shortly after the establishment of a new country, the initial offer had been accepted, and after the purchasing of the French equipment for $40 million, the digging could begin. Roosevelt himself wrote to the Senate and House of Representatives, that the Canal was making a good process. He let them know that people there were happy, and that there was a lot of advancement going on. Furthermore, the people in panama would be really nice, and that he was welcomed warmly. The historian Sarah Jane Gilbert wrote in an e-mail interview that the United States used military force and the threat of military force against Colombia (to detach Panama from Colombia) and against the new Panamanian government (to get a better deal for the Panama Canal). American warships prevented Colombia from responding to Panamas declaration of independence. The new government then appointed the head counsel of the French company as their foreign minister (he was not Panamanian and in fact lived in New York). The lawyer drafted a treaty that gave Panama a far lower share of the canal revenues than the United States could have received in a fair negotiation. When the new government balked at the treaty, Secretary of State J. Hay warned of grave consequences and threatened to send the Navy. The Panamanians soon capitulated. When writing an essay based on sources instead of doing an actual research, it is highly important to be critical about the sources one uses. One also has think about their accuracy, because one cannot always trust them a 100%. The first source I will analyze is the letter from Roosevelt. The origin is Roosevelt himself. He sent it to the Senate and House of Representatives. From there it had been taken and finally also typed up, so that an electronic version was available for everyone who wants to use or take a look at it. The purpose of the letter was to show them how great everything in Panama was going, and that people were fairly happy. The value is high, because it is from the President himself. But of course, he also wanted to show the Senate and House of Representatives how great everything was, and we can be sure that there are limits in terms of the accuracy. Earlier the day it was much easier for politicians to lie about a situation that took place far away from their homes, since nothing could be verified. Since Panama is located in the Tropics, the Climate with its rainy season, diseases, mosquitos and wild animals are very unpleasant. From a logic point of view we could say, that RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s letter cannot be completely true at all. The second source I will analyze is the e-mail interview between the historian Sarah Jane Gilbert and the Harvard Business School. The origin is the website of the Harvard Business School. They sent e-mails with questions to the historian, and on that way they could interview her and published her responses. The purpose is to get some information from a historian, who wrote a book about this topic and knows a lot about it. That also means that the value is high, because she is an expert. But as far as limitations are concerned, we cannot be sure that everything she really said had been published. Eventually, some of the information had been rewritten. Also, S. J. Gilbert was not present during the construction process of the Panama Canal. She had to base her answers and her knowledge on other sources. Those might also be biased. Furthermore, we tend to give some part of an event more attention than we would give others. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why we cannot get a completely objective answer from any historian. The Panama Canal helped us very much as Imperialists. On one side, we increased the security because our Navy needs less time to get from one Ocean to the other one, but on the other side their reach is larger since they save fuel. Also, the Panama Canal increased our national income by 4%, since other ships also use it. Furthermore, our commercial ships can ship their goods at higher rates because they do not have to pass around the Cape Horn. However, we can be sure that all the history and consequences are aspects related to imperialism. The reason of that is because we used military and economic force to make an independent nation out of Panama and then used it for our own purposes. If we think about it, that is exactly what Imperialism is about. Ã¢â¬Å"The seizure of a country or territory by a stronger countryÃ¢â¬ is the definition, and it applies to what happened. However, the canal did not directly make us imperialists, but helped us a lot, because we could control the Atlantic Ocean and take control of Caribbean islands. Our Navy controlled a big part of American continent. However, after some time, the canal became so expensive that is was not worth it keeping it under our command, so we gave it to the Panamanians, who control this piece of history at the moment. Due to the analysis of several sources, and the interpretation of them, I have found out that the Panama Canal did help us being imperialists. But it also helped us to continue being imperialists and also guard America. The liberation of the Panama and the creation of the Panama Canal were both acts of economic and military imperialism. Without the Panama Canal we would have been in quite some trouble, and also still would be in it today, since even right now it is actively being used by ships standing in rows to pass through it. Even if the most captains of those ships do not know much about the canal, they will always be grateful for the creation of it.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Peter CareyÃ¢â¬â¢s The Fat Man in History Entrapment and Isolation are common attributes of characters throughout several of the stories in The Fat Man in History. This comes across in many forms, both physical and mental. In most of the stories both entrapment and isolation often the result of the interaction of both. Stories which this theme is apparent are Crabs, Windmill in the West, and A Report on the Shadow Industry. In all of these stories characters are both entrapped and isolated by their behaviour and environment. They are not totally entrapped or isolated in all situations as they can change their behaviour to avoid this, however some of the stories depicting characters isolated or entrapped by their environment have less choice in their situation. Crabs was one of the stories where the isolation and entrapment were results of behaviour but later involved environment. The setting we are introduced to is one of isolation portrayed by the every man for himself world. Car owners were the prey of both Karboys and Police with support from no one against these forces. Crabs could have avoided this by having car that was less of a target, or not having a car at all, even though this would have been a difficult sacrifice. This isolation was the cause for his physical entrapment in the drive-in. During his entrapment in the drive in a further isolation was endured by Crabs. His choice of solitude was brought on by himself however, as he had become bored with the world ...
Monday, January 13, 2020
Sample Information Security Policy I. POLICY A. It is the policy of ORGANIZATION XYZ that information, as defined hereinafter, in all its formsÃ¢â¬âwritten, spoken, recorded electronically or printedÃ¢â¬âwill be protected from accidental or intentional unauthorized modification, destruction or disclosure throughout its life cycle. This protection includes an appropriate level of security over the equipment and software used to process, store, and transmit that information. B. All policies and procedures must be documented and made available to individuals responsible for their implementation and compliance. All activities identified by the policies and procedures must also be documented. All the documentation, which may be in electronic form, must be retained for at least 6 (six) years after initial creation, or, pertaining to policies and procedures, after changes are made. All documentation must be periodically reviewed for appropriateness and currency, a period of time to be determined by each entity within ORGANIZATION XYZ. C. At each entity and/or department level, additional policies, standards and procedures will be developed detailing the implementation of this policy and set of standards, and addressing any additional information systems functionality in such entity and/or department. All departmental policies must be consistent with this policy. All systems implemented after the effective date of these policies are expected to comply with the provisions of this policy where possible. Existing systems are expected to be brought into compliance where possible and as soon as practical. II. SCOPE A. The scope of information security includes the protection of the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. B. The framework for managing information security in this policy applies to all ORGANIZATION XYZ entities and workers, and other Involved Persons and all Involved Systems throughout ORGANIZATION XYZ as defined below in INFORMATION SECURITY DEFINITIONS. C. This policy and all standards apply to all protected health information and other classes of protected information in any form as defined below in INFORMATION CLASSIFICATION. III. RISK MANAGEMENT A. A thorough analysis of all ORGANIZATION XYZ information networks and systems will be conducted on a periodic basis to document the threats and vulnerabilities to stored and transmitted information. The analysis will examine the types of threats Ã¢â¬â internal or external, natural or manmade, electronic and non-electronicÃ¢â¬â that affect the ability to manage the information resource. The analysis will also document the existing vulnerabilities within each entity which potentially expose the information resource to the threats. Finally, the analysis will also include an evaluation of the information assets and the technology associated with its collection, storage, dissemination and protection. From the combination of threats, vulnerabilities, and asset values, an estimate of the risks to the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the information will be determined. The frequency of the risk analysis will be determined at the entity level. B. Based on the periodic assessment, measures will be implemented that reduce the impact of the threats by reducing the amount and scope of the vulnerabilities. IV. INFORMATION SECURITY DEFINITIONS Affiliated Covered Entities: Legally separate, but affiliated, covered entities which choose to designate themselves as a single covered entity for purposes of HIPAA. Availability: Data or information is accessible and usable upon demand by an authorized person. Confidentiality: Data or information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized persons or processes. HIPAA: The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, a federal law passed in 1996 that affects the healthcare and insurance industries. A key goal of the HIPAA regulations is to protect the privacy and confidentiality of protected health information by setting and enforcing standards. Integrity: Data or information has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner. Involved Persons: Every worker at ORGANIZATION XYZ Ã¢â¬â no matter what their status. This includes physicians, residents, students, employees, contractors, consultants, temporaries, volunteers, interns, etc. Involved Systems: All computer equipment and network systems that are operated within the ORGANIZATION XYZ environment. This includes all platforms (operating systems), all computer sizes (personal digital assistants, desktops, mainframes, etc. ), and all applications and data (whether developed in-house or licensed from third parties) contained on those systems. Protected Health Information (PHI): PHI is health information, including demographic information, created or received by the ORGANIZATION XYZ entities which relates to the past, present, or future physical or mental health or condition of an individual; the provision of health care to an individual; or the past, present, or future payment for the provision of health care to an individual and that identifies or can be used to identify the individual. Risk: The probability of a loss of confidentiality, integrity, or availability of information resources. V. INFORMATION SECURITY RESPONSIBILITIES A. Information Security Officer: The Information Security Officer (ISO) for each entity is responsible for working with user management, owners, custodians, and users to develop and implement prudent security policies, procedures, and controls, subject to the approval of ORGANIZATION XYZ. Specific responsibilities include: 1. Ensuring security policies, procedures, and standards are in place and adhered to by entity. 2. Providing basic security support for all systems and users. 3. Advising owners in the identification and classification of computer resources. See Section VI Information Classification. 4. Advising systems development and application owners in the implementation of security controls for information on systems, from the point of system design, through testing and production implementation. 5. Educating custodian and user management with comprehensive information about security controls affecting system users and application systems. 6. Providing on-going employee security education. 7. Performing security audits. 8. Reporting regularly to the ORGANIZATION XYZ Oversight Committee on entityÃ¢â¬â¢s status with regard to information security. B. Information Owner: The owner of a collection of information is usually the manager responsible for the creation of that information or the primary user of that information. This role often corresponds with the management of an organizational unit. In this context, ownership does not signify proprietary interest, and ownership may be shared. The owner may delegate ownership responsibilities to another individual by completing the ORGANIZATION XYZ Information Owner Delegation Form. The owner of information has the responsibility for: 1. Knowing the information for which she/he is responsible. 2. Determining a data retention period for the information, relying on advice from the Legal Department. 3. Ensuring appropriate procedures are in effect to protect the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of the information used or created within the unit. 4. Authorizing access and assigning custodianship. 5. Specifying controls and communicating the control requirements to the custodian and users of the information. 6. Reporting promptly to the ISO the loss or misuse of ORGANIZATION XYZ information. 7. Initiating corrective actions when problems are identified. 8. Promoting employee education and awareness by utilizing programs approved by the ISO, where appropriate. 9. Following existing approval processes within the respective organizational unit for the selection, budgeting, purchase, and implementation of any computer system/software to manage information. C. Custodian: The custodian of information is generally responsible for the processing and storage of the information. The custodian is responsible for the administration of controls as specified by the owner. Responsibilities may include: 1. Providing and/or recommending physical safeguards. 2. Providing and/or recommending procedural safeguards. 3. Administering access to information. 4. Releasing information as authorized by the Information Owner and/or the Information Privacy/ Security Officer for use and disclosure using procedures that protect the privacy of the information. 5. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of controls. 6. Maintaining information security policies, procedures and standards as appropriate and in consultation with the ISO. 7. Promoting employee education and awareness by utilizing programs approved by the ISO, where appropriate. 8. Reporting promptly to the ISO the loss or misuse of ORGANIZATION XYZ information. 9. Identifying and responding to security incidents and initiating appropriate actions when problems are identified. D. User Management: ORGANIZATION XYZ management who supervise users as defined below. User management is responsible for overseeing their employees' use of information, including: 1. Reviewing and approving all requests for their employees access authorizations. . Initiating security change requests to keep employees' security record current with their positions and job functions. 3. Promptly informing appropriate parties of employee terminations and transfers, in accordance with local entity termination procedures. 4. Revoking physical access to terminated employees, i. e. , confiscating keys, changing combination locks, etc. 5. Providing employees with the opportunity for training needed to properly use the computer systems. 6. Reporting promptly to the ISO the loss or misuse of ORGANIZATION XYZ information. 7. Initiating corrective actions when problems are identified. 8. Following existing approval processes within their respective organization for the selection, budgeting, purchase, and implementation of any computer system/software to manage information. E. User: The user is any person who has been authorized to read, enter, or update information. A user of information is expected to: 1. Access information only in support of their authorized job responsibilities. 2. Comply with Information Security Policies and Standards and with all controls established by the owner and custodian. 3. Refer all disclosures of PHI (1) outside of ORGANIZATION XYZ and (2) within ORGANIZATION XYZ, other than for treatment, payment, or health care operations, to the applicable entityÃ¢â¬â¢s Medical/Health Information Management Department. In certain circumstances, the Medical/Health Information Management Department policies may specifically delegate the disclosure process to other departments. (For additional information, see ORGANIZATION XYZ Privacy/Confidentiality of Protected Health Information (PHI) Policy. ) 4. Keep personal authentication devices (e. g. passwords, SecureCards, PINs, etc. confidential. 5. Report promptly to the ISO the loss or misuse of ORGANIZATION XYZ information. 6. Initiate corrective actions when problems are identified. VI. INFORMATION CLASSIFICATION Classification is used to promote proper controls for safeguarding the confidentiality of information. Regardless of classification the integrity and accuracy of all classifications of information must be pr otected. The classification assigned and the related controls applied are dependent on the sensitivity of the information. Information must be classified according to the most sensitive detail it includes. Information recorded in several formats (e. g. , source document, electronic record, report) must have the same classification regardless of format. The following levels are to be used when classifying information: A. Protected Health Information (PHI) 1. PHI is information, whether oral or recorded in any form or medium, that: a. is created or received by a healthcare provider, health plan, public health authority, employer, life insurer, school or university or health clearinghouse; and b. relates to past, present or future physical or mental ealth or condition of an individual, the provision of health care to an individual, or the past present or future payment for the provision of health care to an individual; and c. includes demographic data, that permits identification of the individual or could reasonably be used to identify the individual. 2. Unauthorized or improper disclosure, modification, or destruction of this information could violate state and federal laws, result in c ivil and criminal penalties, and cause serious damage to ORGANIZATION XYZ and its patients or research interests. B. Confidential Information 1. Confidential Information is very important and highly sensitive material that is not classified as PHI. This information is private or otherwise sensitive in nature and must be restricted to those with a legitimate business need for access. Examples of Confidential Information may include: personnel information, key financial information, proprietary information of commercial research sponsors, system access passwords and information file encryption keys. 2. Unauthorized disclosure of this information to people without a business need for access may violate laws and regulations, or may cause significant problems for ORGANIZATION XYZ, its customers, or its business partners. Decisions about the provision of access to this information must always be cleared through the information owner. C. Internal Information 1. Internal Information is intended for unrestricted use within ORGANIZATION XYZ, and in some cases within affiliated organizations such as ORGANIZATION XYZ business partners. This type of information is already idely-distributed within ORGANIZATION XYZ, or it could be so distributed within the organization without advance permission from the information owner. Examples of Internal Information may include: personnel directories, internal policies and procedures, most internal electronic mail messages. 2. Any information not explicitly classified as PHI, Confidential or Public will, by default, be classified as Internal Information. 3. Unauthorized disclosure of this information to outsiders may not be appropriate due to legal or contractual provisions. D. Public Information 1. Public Information has been specifically approved for public release by a designated authority within each entity of ORGANIZATION XYZ. Examples of Public Information may include marketing brochures and material posted to ORGANIZATION XYZ entity internet web pages. 2. This information may be disclosed outside of ORGANIZATION XYZ. VII. COMPUTER AND INFORMATION CONTROL All involved systems and information are assets of ORGANIZATION XYZ and are expected to be protected from misuse, unauthorized manipulation, and destruction. These protection measures may be physical and/or software based. A. Ownership of Software: All computer software developed by ORGANIZATION XYZ employees or contract personnel on behalf of ORGANIZATION XYZ or licensed for ORGANIZATION XYZ use is the property of ORGANIZATION XYZ and must not be copied for use at home or any other location, unless otherwise specified by the license agreement. B. Installed Software: All software packages that reside on computers and networks within ORGANIZATION XYZ must comply with applicable licensing agreements and restrictions and must comply with ORGANIZATION XYZ acquisition of software policies. C. Virus Protection: Virus checking systems approved by the Information Security Officer and Information Services must be deployed using a multi-layered approach (desktops, servers, gateways, etc. ) that ensures all electronic files are appropriately scanned for viruses. Users are not authorized to turn off or disable virus checking systems. D. Access Controls: Physical and electronic access to PHI, Confidential and Internal information and computing resources is controlled. To ensure appropriate levels of access by internal workers, a variety of security measures will be instituted as recommended by the Information Security Officer and approved by ORGANIZATION XYZ. Mechanisms to control access to PHI, Confidential and Internal information include (but are not limited to) the following methods: 1. Authorization: Access will be granted on a Ã¢â¬Å"need to knowÃ¢â¬ basis and must be authorized by the immediate supervisor and application owner with the assistance of the ISO. Any of the following methods are acceptable for providing access under this policy: . Context-based access: Access control based on the context of a transaction (as opposed to being based on attributes of the initiator or target). The Ã¢â¬Å"externalÃ¢â¬ factors might include time of day, location of the user, strength of user authentication, etc. b. Role-based access: An alternative to traditional access control models (e. g. , discretionary or non-discretionary access control po licies) that permits the specification and enforcement of enterprise-specific security policies in a way that maps more naturally to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s structure and business activities. Each user is assigned to one or more predefined roles, each of which has been assigned the various privileges needed to perform that role. c. User-based access: A security mechanism used to grant users of a system access based upon the identity of the user. 2. Identification/Authentication: Unique user identification (user id) and authentication is required for all systems that maintain or access PHI, Confidential and/or Internal Information. Users will be held accountable for all actions performed on the system with their user id. a. At least one of the following authentication methods must be implemented: 1. strictly controlled passwords (Attachment 1 Ã¢â¬â Password Control Standards), 2. biometric identification, and/or 3. tokens in conjunction with a PIN. b. The user must secure his/her authentication control (e. g. password, token) such that it is known only to that user and possibly a designated security manager. c. An automatic timeout re-authentication must be required after a certain period of no activity (maximum 15 minutes). d. The user must log off or secure the system when leaving it. 3. Data Integrity: ORGANIZATION XYZ must be able to provide corroboration that PHI, Confidential, and Internal Information has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner. Listed below are some methods that support data integrity: a. transaction audit b. disk redundancy (RAID) c. ECC (Error Correcting Memory) d. checksums (file integrity) e. encryption of data in storage f. digital signatures 4. Transmission Security: Technical security mechanisms must be put in place to guard against unauthorized access to data that is transmitted over a communications network, including wireless networks. The following features must be implemented: a. integrity controls and b. encryption, where deemed appropriate 5. Remote Access: Access into ORGANIZATION XYZ network from outside will be granted using ORGANIZATION XYZ approved devices and pathways on an individual user and application basis. All other network access options are strictly prohibited. Further, PHI, Confidential and/or Internal Information that is stored or accessed remotely must maintain the same level of protections as information stored and accessed within the ORGANIZATION XYZ network. 6. Physical Access: Access to areas in which information processing is carried out must be restricted to only appropriately authorized individuals. The following physical controls must be in place: a. Mainframe computer systems must be installed in an access-controlled area. The area in and around the computer facility must afford protection against fire, water damage, and other environmental hazards such as power outages and extreme temperature situations. b. File servers containing PHI, Confidential and/or Internal Information must be installed in a secure area to prevent theft, destruction, or access by unauthorized individuals. . Workstations or personal computers (PC) must be secured against use by unauthorized individuals. Local procedures and standards must be developed on secure and appropriate workstation use and physical safeguards which must include procedures that will: 1. Position workstations to minimize unauthorized viewing of protected health information. 2. Grant workst ation access only to those who need it in order to perform their job function. 3. Establish workstation location criteria to eliminate or minimize the possibility of unauthorized access to protected health information. 4. Employ physical safeguards as determined by risk analysis, such as locating workstations in controlled access areas or installing covers or enclosures to preclude passerby access to PHI. 5. Use automatic screen savers with passwords to protect unattended machines. d. Facility access controls must be implemented to limit physical access to electronic information systems and the facilities in which they are housed, while ensuring that properly authorized access is allowed. Local policies and procedures must be developed to address the following facility access control requirements: 1. Contingency Operations Ã¢â¬â Documented procedures that allow facility access in support of restoration of lost data under the disaster recovery plan and emergency mode operations plan in the event of an emergency. 2. Facility Security Plan Ã¢â¬â Documented policies and procedures to safeguard the facility and the equipment therein from unauthorized physical access, tampering, and theft. 3. Access Control and Validation Ã¢â¬â Documented procedures to control and validate a personÃ¢â¬â¢s access to facilities based on their role or function, including visitor control, and control of access to software programs for testing and revision. . Maintenance records Ã¢â¬â Documented policies and procedures to document repairs and modifications to the physical components of the facility which are related to security (for example, hardware, walls, doors, and locks). 7. Emergency Access: a. Each entity is required to establish a mechanism to provide emergency access to systems and ap plications in the event that the assigned custodian or owner is unavailable during an emergency. b. Procedures must be documented to address: 1. Authorization, 2. Implementation, and 3. Revocation E. Equipment and Media Controls: The disposal of information must ensure the continued protection of PHI, Confidential and Internal Information. Each entity must develop and implement policies and procedures that govern the receipt and removal of hardware and electronic media that contain PHI into and out of a facility, and the movement of these items within the facility. The following specification must be addressed: 1. Information Disposal / Media Re-Use of: a. Hard copy (paper and microfilm/fiche) b. Magnetic media (floppy disks, hard drives, zip disks, etc. ) and c. CD ROM Disks 2. Accountability: Each entity must maintain a record of the movements of hardware and electronic media and any person responsible therefore. 3. Data backup and Storage: When needed, create a retrievable, exact copy of electronic PHI before movement of equipment. F. Other Media Controls: 1. PHI and Confidential Information stored on external media (diskettes, cd-roms, portable storage, memory sticks, etc. ) must be protected from theft and unauthorized access. Such media must be appropriately labeled so as to identify it as PHI or Confidential Information. Further, external media containing PHI and Confidential Information must never be left unattended in unsecured areas. 2. PHI and Confidential Information must never be stored on mobile computing devices (laptops, personal digital assistants (PDA), smart phones, tablet PCÃ¢â¬â¢s, etc. ) unless the devices have the following minimum security requirements implemented: a. Power-on passwords b. Auto logoff or screen saver with password c. Encryption of stored data or other acceptable safeguards approved by Information Security Officer Further, mobile computing devices must never be left unattended in unsecured areas. . If PHI or Confidential Information is stored on external medium or mobile computing devices and there is a breach of confidentiality as a result, then the owner of the medium/device will be held personally accountable and is subject to the terms and conditions of ORGANIZATION XYZ Information Security Policies and Confidentiality Statement signed as a condition of employme nt or affiliation with ORGANIZATION XYZ. H. Data Transfer/Printing: 1. Electronic Mass Data Transfers: Downloading and uploading PHI, Confidential, and Internal Information between systems must be strictly controlled. Requests for mass downloads of, or individual requests for, information for research purposes that include PHI must be approved through the Internal Review Board (IRB). All other mass downloads of information must be approved by the Application Owner and include only the minimum amount of information necessary to fulfill the request. Applicable Business Associate Agreements must be in place when transferring PHI to external entities (see ORGANIZATION XYZ policy B-2 entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Business AssociatesÃ¢â¬ ). 2. Other Electronic Data Transfers and Printing: PHI, Confidential and Internal Information must be stored in a manner inaccessible to unauthorized individuals. PHI and Confidential information must not be downloaded, copied or printed indiscriminately or left unattended and open to compromise. PHI that is downloaded for educational purposes where possible should be de-identified before use. I. Oral Communications: ORGANIZATION XYZ staff should be aware of their surroundings when discussing PHI and Confidential Information. This includes the use of cellular telephones in public areas. ORGANIZATION XYZ staff should not discuss PHI or Confidential Information in public areas if the information can be overheard. Caution should be used when conducting conversations in: semi-private rooms, waiting rooms, corridors, elevators, stairwells, cafeterias, restaurants, or on public transportation. J. Audit Controls: Hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use PHI must be implemented. Further, procedures must be implemented to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports. These reviews must be documented and maintained for six (6) years. K. Evaluation: ORGANIZATION XYZ requires that periodic technical and non-technical evaluations be performed in response to environmental or operational changes affecting the security of electronic PHI to ensure its continued protection. L. Contingency Plan: Controls must ensure that ORGANIZATION XYZ can recover from any damage to computer equipment or files within a reasonable period of time. Each entity is required to develop and maintain a plan for responding to a system emergency or other occurrence (for example, fire, vandalism, system failure and natural disaster) that damages systems that contain PHI, Confidential, or Internal Information. This will include developing policies and procedures to address the following: 1. Data Backup Plan: a. A data backup plan must be documented and routinely updated to create and maintain, for a specific period of time, retrievable exact copies of information. b. Backup data must be stored in an off-site location and protected from physical damage. . Backup data must be afforded the same level of protection as the original data. 2. Disaster Recovery Plan: A disaster recovery plan must be developed and documented which contains a process enabling the entity to restore any loss of data in the event of fire, vandalism, natural disaster, or system failure. 3. Emergency Mode Operation Plan: A plan must be developed and documented which c ontains a process enabling the entity to continue to operate in the event of fire, vandalism, natural disaster, or system failure. 4. Testing and Revision Procedures: Procedures should be developed and documented requiring periodic testing of written contingency plans to discover weaknesses and the subsequent process of revising the documentation, if necessary. 5. Applications and Data Criticality Analysis: The criticality of specific applications and data in support of other contingency plan components must be assessed and documented. Compliance [Ã § 164. 308(a)(1)(ii)(C)] A. The Information Security Policy applies to all users of ORGANIZATION XYZ information including: employees, medical staff, students, volunteers, and outside affiliates. Failure to comply with Information Security Policies and Standards by employees, medical staff, volunteers, and outside affiliates may result in disciplinary action up to and including dismissal in accordance with applicable ORGANIZATION XYZ procedures, or, in the case of outside affiliates, termination of the affiliation. Failure to comply with Information Security Policies and Standards by students may constitute grounds for corrective action in accordance with ORGANIZATION XYZ procedures. Further, penalties associated with state and federal laws may apply. B. Possible disciplinary/corrective action may be instituted for, but is not limited to, the following: 1. Unauthorized disclosure of PHI or Confidential Information as specified in Confidentiality Statement. 2. Unauthorized disclosure of a sign-on code (user id) or password. 3. Attempting to obtain a sign-on code or password that belongs to another person. 4. Using or attempting to use another person's sign-on code or password. 5. Unauthorized use of an authorized password to invade patient privacy by examining records or information for which there has been no request for review. . Installing or using unlicensed software on ORGANIZATION XYZ computers. 7. The intentional unauthorized destruction of ORGANIZATION XYZ information. 8. Attempting to get access to sign-on codes for purposes other than official business, including completing fraudulent documentation to gain access. Ã¢â¬â ATTACHMENT 1 Ã¢â¬â Password Control Standards The ORGANIZATION XYZ Information Security Policy requi res the use of strictly controlled passwords for accessing Protected Health Information (PHI), Confidential Information (CI) and Internal Information (II). See ORGANIZATION XYZ Information Security Policy for definition of these protected classes of information. ) Listed below are the minimum standards that must be implemented in order to ensure the effectiveness of password controls. Standards for accessing PHI, CI, II: Users are responsible for complying with the following password standards: 1. Passwords must never be shared with another person, unless the person is a designated security manager. 2. Every password must, where possible, be changed regularly Ã¢â¬â (between 45 and 90 days depending on the sensitivity of the information being accessed) 3. Passwords must, where possible, have a minimum length of six characters. 4. Passwords must never be saved when prompted by any application with the exception of central single sign-on (SSO) systems as approved by the ISO. This feature should be disabled in all applicable systems. 5. Passwords must not be programmed into a PC or recorded anywhere that someone may find and use them. 6. When creating a password, it is important not to use words that can be found in dictionaries or words that are easily guessed due to their association with the user (i. e. childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s names, petsÃ¢â¬â¢ names, birthdays, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦). A combination of alpha and numeric characters are more difficult to guess. Where possible, system software must enforce the following password standards: 1. Passwords routed over a network must be encrypted. 2. Passwords must be entered in a non-display field. 3. System software must enforce the changing of passwords and the minimum length. 4. System software must disable the user identification code when more than three consecutive invalid passwords are given within a 15 minute timeframe. Lockout time must be set at a minimum of 30 minutes. 5. System software must maintain a history of previous passwords and prevent their reuse.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
How great of an honor is it to host an event such as the Olympics? According to Stefan Szymanski, Ã¢â¬Å"the hosting of major sporting events has become the subject of intense competition among nations. Governments will make large financial commitments in order to win the bidding competition.Ã¢â¬ The regression of big time sporting events have changed immensely, from firstly being about showing who the best athlete was, to now a way of nations being able to bring fame and possible fortunes to their doors for just hosting such huge events. 2000-2015 has been a time span where the conversation about the Olympics, itÃ¢â¬â¢s events, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s policies have changed. The Olympic games originated in ancient Greece, about 3,000 years ago (8th century B.C. to 4th century A.D.) (A+E Networks, 2015). The games took place in Olympia located in the western Peloponnese peninsula. At first the Olympic games were used as a religious festival in honor of the ruler of gods, Zeus. After many years the Olympic games were re-introduced in the 19th century, which was done to bring countries back together as one and participate in this world wide competition of olympians. The games as a whole have changed the way of how people see the athletes. In the beginning of it all, the athletes competed for their religious believes, now the race to be the best is at its highest, with the 28 sports to participate in. According to the author, the number of professional has increased by approximately 10,500 professionalShow MoreRelatedVicious And Dangerous Sports The Olympic Games1274 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Vicious and dangerous sports should be banned by law When you think of the tremendous technological progress we have made, it s amazing how little we have developed in other respects. We may speak contemptuously of the poor old Romans because they relished the orgies of slaughter that went on in their arenas. We may despise them because they mistook these goings on for entertainment. We may forgive them because they lived 2000 years ago and obviously knew no better. But are our feelings of superiorityRead More Olympics Essay1354 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Olympics The Olympics are a huge sporting event that contains many different sports and consists of many different countries from around the world. Back in ancient Greece is where the ancient Olympics originated. It was primarily a part of a religious festival in honor of Zeus the father of Greek Gods and Goddesses. The Olympics where held at the sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia, which is in Western Peloponnesos. From 776 BC, the games took place at Olympia every 4 years for almost 12 centuriesRead MoreThe Olympic Games Or A Party2025 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Olympic Games or a Party The Olympics are a special spectacle for everyone, and for sixteen days every two years we are witness to the best athletes in the world. Only for the rare few the dream to compete are a reality, but for the billions of other people, this is an event of pride and passion for their home country. The continuous cycle of new cities and different countries hosting the games brings out great nationalism. The challenge to get a bid to host the Olympics has always been difficultRead MoreThe Iliad, By Homer1141 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswhich rendered him nearly invincible. As he grew, he built a great reputation as a great athlete and warrior. The first example of his heroics was illustrated when he was given the choice to die young and live on in legend, or live a long life but eventually be forgotten. Achilles proclaimed his choice of honor and glory and left for war with the Achaeans. This action marked the start of his heroic journey through and past the events of the Iliad. Another example of his heroism is found in the IliadÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreMega Events Like The Olympics And Fifa World Cup2251 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesMega-Events like the Olympics and FIFA world Cup are both tremendously important and popular today. It is because there are so few, if any, other events that truly inspire international cooperation and unity like they do. If one can imagine these events as a mirrors reflecting back the organization of international politics, the mega -events show a picture of incredible harmony and cooperation (Segrave, 1988). Inherent in that picture of harmony is the opportunity to spread important ideals suchRead MoreThe Aeneid and The Odyssey1324 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbe examined indepth. The lovers encountered in both plays can lead to the idea of ancient plagarism. The games held by the greeks and trojans are similar to the Olympic Games. The downfall of characters, cities or monsters can be seen often in many stories. Maybe rewriting history is the effort of a plagarist to cheat true historical events. The lovers Aeneas and Odysseus encounter in either the Aeneid or Odyssey is vast and large. Aeneas is married to Creusa until they are separate by a senseRead MoreThe Medal Of Gold: The Olympics Essay1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThis is the event that people all over the world watch, on television or in the arena, this is the place gold medals are earned and lost. This is the Olympics. Did you know that unmarried women could watch the ancient Olympics? Or that one person ate paper as a warm up food? Though wacky, it is true, and there is a lot more to go along with that. Welcome to the Olympics. Ã¢â¬Å"May the odds be ever in your favor!Ã¢â¬ - Suzanne Collins, The Hunger Games. Greece is the origin of the Olympics, plain and simpleRead MoreAncient Olympic Games4105 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pagesyour answer. 1. In fact, such sports as lacrosse, field hockey, bowling and horse racing were invented by the American Indians. 2. Many different sports were developed in Britain in the 19th century. 3. The headquarters of golf is located in Great Britain. 4. Two types of rugby football differ from each other only in the number of players. 5. Before 1865, brutality was a characteristic feature of prize fighting. 6. Cricket is widely spread in the English-speaking countries. 7. SchoolsRead MoreThe Use of Illegal Drugs in Sports Essay examples1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand rich prizes for winners led to the emergence of a class of highly paid sports people, resulting in the demise of the amateur competitor. (4) Ã¢â¬Å"Show Me The MoneyÃ¢â¬ Writings from the time of Plato reveal that the value of a victory in the ancient Olympics was the equivalent of nearly half a million dollars. This was complemented by other rewards including food, homes, tax exemptions and even deferment from the armed service. Professionalism and commercialism ultimately led to corruption. BribingRead MoreThe Paralympic Sports And Sports Competition3774 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesdefined as any sport or sporting event involving individuals with a disability, whether it be a physical disability, vision impairment or intellectual disability. Individuals with disabilities have competed in sports for over one hundred years however, in 1948 Ludwig Guttmann conspired a sports competition which involved world war two veterans that had spinal cord injuries, this later became known as the Paralympics. The Paralympic Games are a multi-sport event for athletes with physical, mental
Friday, December 27, 2019
Women are bombarded by images of a thin-ideal body form that is extremely hard, if not impossible, to emulate. Comparing themselves to these women can lead to feelings of inadequacy, depression, and an overall low self-esteem. (Expand on, need a good opening paragraph to grab the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention) Objectification Theory Objectification theory has been proposed as a standard for understanding the effects of living in a culture that sexually objectifies women (Fredrickson Roberts, 1997). Objectification occurs when a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body is treated like a separate entity and is evaluated on its own merit, without consideration for the rest of the person. When an individual is sexually objectified, they are treated like an object thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Shame is a self-conscious and negative emotion that exhibits the desire to hide or disappear. Shame occurs when an individual internally evaluates themselves based on a predetermined standard and decides they have not met that standard. When this is applied to the thin-ideal body type, a sense of inadequacy and shame can arise due to its difficulty to emulate. Coping Strategies When an individual experiences body shame they will most likely employ a type of coping strategy. Coping is defined as the thoughts and/or actions that the individual uses to manage the effects of the stressor. As explained by Choma, Shove, Busseri, Sadava, and Hosker (2009), a coping strategy tends to either mediate or moderate the experience for the individual and some strategies alleviate the stressor while other responses tend to be self-defeating. There are several types of coping strategies that an individual might employ; Avoidance coping, appearance fixing, and positive rational acceptance coping strategy. These coping strategies are further explained by Choma et al (2009). First, when a person uses avoidance coping strategies they attempt to evade the threat, for example they might avoid mirrors. Second, an appearance fixing coping strategy would be employed to try and change the way they look. They might employ dieting strategies or even plastic surgery. Third, a positive rational acceptance coping strategy would involve usingShow MoreRelatedThe Self Objectification Theory Of Women4667 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesSelf-objectification Theory Objectification occurs when a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body is evaluated as a separate entity with a blatant disregard to the human who occupies it. When objectification occurs it dehumanizes the individual and turns them into an object that is to be used for someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s pleasure. Women in westernized cultures are particularly subject to this type of treatment and the detrimental effects it can cause (Harper Tiggemann, 2008). Often as a result, objectification is turned inwardRead MoreMedia Panics981 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestake away their ability to think on their own and develop into mature individuals. The first media panic I will discuses is how video games have developed a relationship with violence amongst our children. The second media panic is the sexual objectification of young women online. First, it is important we define what is meant by media panics. Danish media scholar Kirsten Drotner (1999) defines it as Ã¢â¬Å"emotionally charged reactions on the appearance of new mediaÃ¢â¬ (p. 593). She continues to explainRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Romantic Comedy Essay1822 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMegÃ¢â¬â¢s transition of beliefs that a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s real place is in the home and with her family something the film tried hard to subvert in which it was almost successful at. Scene 2: Men regard women as sexual objects and thus of lower status The objectification theory suggests that women are sexually objectified and treated as an object to be valued for its use by others, implying that when a femaleÃ¢â¬â¢s body is singled out from her as a person that she is then viewed primarily as a physical object of a maleÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreMedia and Unrealistic Body Image Essay1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesexists within university-aged females through the implementation of the Photographic Figure Rating Scale and structured qualitative interviews (Swami et al., 2008). It will focus on two correlates of body dissatisfaction: social comparison and objectification theory. Literature Review Accompanying unrealistic images of women, the media spends billions of dollars yearly to advertise the various techniques that eliminate body discontents such as dieting pills and exercising machines, and exploits femaleRead MoreThe Sexual Objectification Of Women1403 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshas been a tremendous increase in the sexual objectification of women. In many aspects, digital images play a major role in the sexual objectification of women. The majority of these images consist of advertisements that are posted on the internet, on television, or on various forms of social media. Some argue that men have to deal with the same type of objectification in the media, but it certainly isnÃ¢â¬â¢t as severe. Furthermore, the sexual objectification of women is more prominent in society now moreRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effect On Society998 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesself-objectification in adolescent females increasing the risk factors for mental health disorders and puberty developmen t. The purpose of this project is to discover the risks of self-objectification and the effects that it has on the mental health of adolescent females. This topic was chosen based on the idea of gender related oppression that we as female social workers may encounter both personally and professionally. The term self-objectification originates from objectification theory. ThisRead MoreWomen And Women s Body2476 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesare not the only ones to blame for. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, society plays a leading role in the discrimination of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies through the media such as advertisements, television shows and movies. Thus, are men really only ones to blame for the objectification of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies? Men take a leading role in the discrimination of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies however, the advertisements that are displayed for the public eye also play an enormous role. In commercial advertisements for instance, women are always niceRead MoreAnalysis Of Laura Mulvey s Essay, Visual Pleasure And Narrative Cinema999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages makes. The messages that the song sends speak volumes, and as the song aligns with claims that Mulvey makes, the song becomes increasingly more objectifying. Before delving into media, one must understand a little bit about the psychoanalytic theory that Mulvey makes her claims from. First, Freud suggests that because women are without a penis, they have a castration-complex, so they compensate for this by having children. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s first love interest is their mother, and this is where desireRead MoreExploring Objectification Theory Through Media Output and Seduction Masters2168 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesPickup Artists and the unwillingness of the majority of the populous to recognize this as a pressing issue has caused the imbalance between the sexes to grow swift as an epidemic. Objectification theory, studied by WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Studies professors and students, is defined as the implicit and explicit sexual objectification of the female body in Western culture producing a multitude of negative consequences for women. The media has a reputation of being a reliable source of information. As such, whenRead MoreBiological Features Of The Booty1987 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesideologies of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality, recent research suggests that female artists are more likely to sexually objectify themselves in their own music videos than male artists are to demonstrate the sexual objectification of female characters in their music videos (Aubrey Frisby, 2011). Sexual objectification occurs whenever a person is Ã¢â¬Å"treated as a body (or collection of body parts) valued predominantly for its use to (or consumption by) othersÃ¢â¬ (Fredrickson Roberts, 1997, p. 174). Often, women are
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