Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Recruitment Process Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Recruitment Process - Essay Example The USA Staffing recruiting system has been designed by the federal government to cater for the special and unique requirements as determined by the federal recruitment and staffing. The application process is done online and the applicants can use USAJOBS and the DEA Career Gateway by USA Staffing recruiting system (DEA, 2015). The advantage of the application process is that it is convinient and the applicants can contact the application manager in the event that they have encountered some problems. On the other hand, the applicationprocess to Join Los Angeles Police force begins by downloading an application form which needs to be completed by the applicant. This process is comprised of seven steps. According to Los angeles Police Force website, the first step in the application process involves Preliminary Background Application (PBA) and Job Preview Questionnaire (JPQ) which is completed online. This aims to help the applicant identify issues that help them better understand the force and check if they have the potential to qualify. The second step is The Personal Qualifications Essay (PQE) which is comprised of essay questions related to judgment and decision making and behavioral flexibility and the applicant’s communication skills are also evaluated. The third step involves background investigation and poligraphy examination. This is meant to obtain the applicant’s background information and family members may also be interviewed to obtain this information. The fourth step involves Physical Abilities Test to measure strength as well as capability in terms of performance. The fifth stage involves interviews where the panelists seek to assess your personal accomplishments, motivation communication skills as well as interpersonal skills to see if you are capable of doing the job. The sixth step involves medical and

Monday, October 28, 2019

Corporate Social Responsibility and branding Essay Example for Free

Corporate Social Responsibility and branding Essay 1. Introduction In this chapter the background of the thesis will be presented and discussed. Moreover, a literature review, research problem and research questions will be introduced in order to get an understanding of the study purpose. This is followed by the limitations and disposition. 1.1 Background The companies of today are very aware of what the public and other stakeholders demand from the companies ´ way of handle their responsibilities (Burchell, 2008). In order to form a strategy for the protection of their brand image and reputation many companies find themselves engaging in Corporate Social Responsibility activities (Kotler and Lee 2005), from now on abbreviated CSR. The desire of doing well and doing good in the society in which the company is operating have been of increasing interest world wide during the last decade. As a result, corporate reporting on social responsibility initiatives can more often be found in companies ´ marketing strategies (Kotler and Lee, 2005). Even though CSR activities are increasing among today ´s organizations there is still lack of a general universally definition of this concept (Crowther and Capaldi, 2008). But in a broad perspective CSR is understood and described as the way companies integrate social, economic and environmental matters into their internal organization (values, culture, decision making and strategy), which leads to establishment of better society, wealth and better practices within the company (Horrigan, 2010). Considering the breadth of CSR it can subsequently be described in many different names: corporate responsibility, corporate sustainability, corporate accountability, corporate citizenship, sustainable development etc (Benn and Bolton, 2011). In a shorter explanation, CSR can therefore be explained as the relationship between a corporation and its stakeholder (Crowther and Capaldi, 2008). Already in 1972 the American professor in Business Administration, Dow Votaw, stated that the amount pages on social responsibility written in our time would fill up a small library. As it turns out, he was right. CSR is here to stay. The idea of taking responsibility beyond what the law demands has increased since the millennial shift (Borglund, DeGeer and Sweet, 2012). Especially big organizations, both in the public and private sectors, are engaging in these kinds of activities (Burchell, 2008). The benefits of a company ´s usage of CSR activities can lead to a better position in the market and a positive return on investment. On top of that of course the benefits for society, such as improvement of life or a cleaner environment (Kotler and Lee, 2005). On the other hand, many view CSR mainly as a step towards a reputation as a responsible business and as good citizens (Burchell, 2008). Either how, risks by avoiding to use this concept can lead to lack of legitimacy for the organization. Meyer and Rowan (1977) also claim that when having a business it is important to be accepted and to be legitimacy in the environment as well as having effective and structured internal processes to survive. According to Grusch (2006) consumers actively scrutinize the local behavior of international companies. Their out-sourced ventures are also being observed, and information regarding possible bad behavior reaches the ears of the public much more quickly than it used to. Consequently, to the stakeholders awareness and other factors that can have an impact on a companys survival, it is therefore important for companies to establish competitive advantage. Differentiation is a way to secure competitive advantage. By using a differentiation strategy a company ´s key strengths and core competencies builds up, and this is where CSR has an important role for a company ´s brand as it gets differentiate by incorporating it in the corporate image. This kind of action can generate to better brand attitudes and in the long run this will result in brand loyalty (Grant, 2008). 1.2 Literature review 1.3 Problem discussion As stated in the background, CSR is a burning question among today ´s companies. Stakeholders are starting to put more pressure on companies ´ responsibility in the society they are operating in, therefore, in order to get a competitive advantage CSR has become a major tool in their marketing strategy (Kotler and Lee, 2005). A branding law defined by Werther and Chandler (2005) shows that CSR will evoke attitudes towards the brand. Are these attitudes positive it will be lead to positive purchase decision and loyal customers, which give companies competitive advantage (Roper and Fill 2012). In Kotler and Lee ´s book (2005) Corporate Social Responsibility – Doing the most good for your company and your cause, they are describing examples of well-known organizations that have used CSR to increase their brand value. It has therefore been a shift focus in the CSR debate, nowadays it is more a debate of how CSR activities should be used and how effective it can be used as a branding tool, rather than if companies should use this concept or not (Smith, 2003). Based on the debate the question that arises is therefore: in what way should CSR activities be used in order to be effective for a positive attitude towards the brand? Today there are many studies relating to the area of CSR. Research does suggest there is a positive relationship between CSR and consumer attitudes towards brands and companies (Creyer and Ross 1997; Ellen, Mohr and Webb, 2000; Lacey and Kennet-Hensel, 2010). It is also shown in studies that CSR activities influence how the consumer behave when a certain brand appear in their mind (Becker-Olsen et al., 2006; Nhattacharya and Sen, 2004). However, most of these studies are focusing on people and brand perception in developed countries. The literatures were more specialized of how the CSR influences image of the brand in the western world and how the western public persuaded the brand of the CSR activities. When doing literature research, the amount of research studies about CSR in developing countries were of a narrow amount. No study could be found about CSR ´s link to branding in a developing ´s countries perspective, further, about how the locals ´ (employers of the company and the consumer in the developing country) brand perception of CSR activities are. As the real life stories in Kotler and Lee ´s book (2005) showed that CSR has an effective link to the brand. However, most of the organizations were conducting the CSR activities in the country they operated in and the society had a good knowledge of what CSR is. Likewise, a study showed that the brand would be effected and look different if the consumers were aware of CSR of the companies (Boulstridge and Carrigan 2000). So the question that can be asked and discussed is if it will appear an effective link to a company ´s brand in a country that is not developed? A research gap is therefore identified. If we place and conduct a study conducted in a western world in a developing country ´s context, would the outcome be the same? Would there be a similar link between CSR and branding there? 1.4 Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to get a deeper understanding of the link between a company ´s CSR and its branding in a developing country. Based on the purpose the following research questions will be presented: 1. What kind of CSR activities are being used to effectively increase positive attitudes towards the company ´s brand? 2. In what way is a company ´s CSR linked to its brand in the Philippines? 3. And how do these attitudes create value for the brand? 2. Methodology In this chapter the research methodology applied in this thesis will be discussed. A description regarding the method design of the study will be explained in the following order: research design, data collection, validity and reliability and data analysis. 2.1 Research approach There are three type of studies identified by Yin (2003): exploratory, explanatory and descriptive. An exploratory research design tries to define the research question and form the hypothesis. A descriptive research in the other hand, tries to describe a different characteristic of a phenomena that arises. When doing a descriptive case study the data collection is being guided by theories. When conducting the explanatory research design it is about how it explains course of events and relate how things happened (Yin, 2003). According to Yin (2003) this thesis can be seen as a descriptive research as it will focus on describing what impact CSR has on branding. When using a descriptive research the problem is structured and understood, which means that existing literature about the topic of CSR and branding (Ghauri and Gronhaug 2010). And this kind of research is mainly done when a researcher wants to gain an even better knowledge of a specific topic (Gill and Johnson, 2010). Due to the research purpose, which is to investigate how CSR influences on a company ´s brand in the Philippines this research method fits the best among the three other ways. 3.2 Research design I chose case studies method, because it enhances the understanding of what is going on in a particular case and it can involve a detailed investigation (Yin, 2009). This information that is gained from case studies are therefore relevant to answer some of my problem and research questions as I want to investigate companies ´ CSR activities and observe these activities in order to understand its impact on the brand which is the data collection in my first section of the study. By a case study approach observations of a companies ´ activities can be captured, which is in a way impossible to capture through questionnaires and interviews (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010). 3.3.1 The case study In the beginning of March I will travel to the Philippines to carry on an eight weeks field study which will give me the opportunity to study some Swedish/International companies ´ CSR activities and how these activities affect their brand perception by interviewing the consumers and workers in country. The case study will therefore obtain information to fulfill my purpose. The choice of companies: The information obtained will be from companies that use CSR activities in the Philippines. In order to fill the research gap I will be aiming for to study companies with well-known CSR activities. 2.3 Data collection A qualitative method will be used in order to collect the information for this thesis. Regarding to Trost (2005) a qualitative method is described as a method where the interviewer gathers the information on the interviewee ´s feelings, thoughts and experiences. Hence, to the search of a deeper understanding of how CSR affects the brand perception, this qualitative approach fit the purpose of the thesis because it can give me a deep information regarding the employees ´ and consumers opinions and feelings towards CSR in the Philippines and the brand which is the aim of this study. 2.3.1 Qualitative interview design Semi-structures face-to-face-interview. 4.4 Validity in qualitative research â€Å"Descriptive validity refers to the degree to which the actual description holds true† (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010 p. 210). Bias: When interviewing the respondents a â€Å"lifting† description of the brand can appear, because they have been chosen to do this certain interview about the companies’ actions. Language is the basic tool of interviewing, and may especially be important in qualitative interviewing (Kvale, 1989). The interviews will be conducted by me in English and since communication is a very important in order to get the information it can appear some small misunderstanding as English is not my mother language. But by conducting a face to face interview, the body language and face expression will increase the validity of the interviews. REFERENCES Kotler, P., Wong, V., Saunders, J. and Armstrong, G. (2004). Principles of Marketing, 4th European edition. New Jersey: FT- Prentice Hall. Burchell, J. 2008. The Corporate Social Responsibility Reader. London and New York: Routledge. Kotler, P. and Lee, N. (2005)  ´Corporate Social Responsibility – Doing the Most Good for Your Company and Your Cause ´, Hoboken, New Jersey. Crowther, D. and Capaldi, N. (2008). The ashgate research companion to Corporate Social Responsibility. MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall Suchman, M. C. (1995) Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches. Academy of Management Review, Vol 20;3, p 571-610. Benn, S. and Bolton, D. (2011). Key Concepts in Corporate Social Responsibility. SAGE Publications Ltd: London Werther, W.B. And Chandler, D. (2005)  ´Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility as Global Brand Insurance ´, Business Horizons 48:317-24. Boulstridge, E and Carrigan, M.†Do consumers really care about corporate responsbility? Highlighting the attitude behavior gap.† Journal of communication management, (2000): 359-360 Gill, J and Johnson, P, 2010, Research Methods for Managers 4th Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd Ghauri, P and Gronhaug, K, 2010, Research Methods in Business Studies 4th edition. Pearson Education Limited. Trost, J, 2005, Kvalitativa intervjuer. Studentlitteratur, Lund. Halvorsen, K. (1989). Samhà ¤llsvetenskaplig Metod. Oslo: Studentlitteratur AB Yin, R.K, 2009, Case Study Research – Design and Method. London: SAGE Ellen, P.S., Webb, D.J. Mohr, L.A. (2006). Building corporate associations: consumer attributions for corporate socially responsible programs. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34 (2), 147-57. doi: 10.1177/0092070305284976 Creyer, E. H., Ross, W. T., Jr. (1997). The influence of firm behavior on purchase intention: Do consumers really care about business ethics? Journal of Consumer Marketing, 14(6), 421–32. doi: 10.1108/07363769710185999

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Princess Diana :: Informative

Princess. What does the term really mean? Most people associate it with a fairy-tale life. You have everything you want right at your finger-tips. You are perfectly happy and nothing can go wrong. In reality though, is this true? Lady Diana Spencer was seen as a perfect, flawless princess. But who really was she? What did the title â€Å"Princess† mean to her? Diana secretly struggled with insecurity her entire life, but her determination and compassion shaped the way the world thought of her. Throughout her life Diana displayed a very insecure nature. Psychologists think this was rooted in her childhood (Smith). When she was six, her mom left her family (Smith). After her parent’s high-profile divorce was finalized, she remembered her father’s distant, lonely silences, and her mother’s constant crying (Morton 35). Diana described this as a â€Å"wish-washy and painful experience† (33). Due to these circumstances she felt detached and different from others at a very young age (34). For Diana’s engagement party to the Prince of Wales, she wore a black dress that she thought was â€Å"pretty and smart† (51-52). When Prince Charles saw her, he said with disgust, â€Å"only people in mourning wear black† (170-171). She was destroyed by this comment. She needed people’s constant support and compliments (170). Later in her marriage, her husband’s lack of attention led her to suffer from bulimia and to make several su icide attempts (85-86). Once, when she was attempting to gain Prince Charles’ attention, she took a penknife and cut her chest and thighs (77). Seeing the bloody sight he said, â€Å"You are crying wolf.† This comment added to her negative self-esteem (188). The constant press coverage put her under lots of pressure. â€Å"It warped her sense of who she was through its unrealistic expectations, distortions, exaggerations and outright inventions† (Smith). It made her believe she had to live up to the impossible expectations that were being forced on her (Smith). Diana was easily influenced and very sensitive. She let other people’s views of her and life’s uncontrollable circumstances affect her self-image. Diana showed great determination by following what she believed in. She had a passion for ballet throughout her entire life. When she was at boarding school, she would sneak down to an empty corridor at night and practice for hours on end. Even though she grew too tall to accomplish her dreams of becoming a professional ballerina, she kept dancing throughout her adult years (Morton 125).

Thursday, October 24, 2019

P unit

I will also be talking about nature and nurture and how It relates to some of the life stages. The PIES are what everyone needs when they are growing up and get to their full potential they are: physical, intellectual emotional social. Physical needs are things like sleep, food, drink, air, warmth, shelter, reproduction and safety form danger these are things that you cannot live without and need to survive. Intellectual Is the second need In life Is the need to learn, face challenges, Interests and hobbies.The third need is emotional needs this is things like: respect to you and others, identity, self-esteem and self-worth. The final need is social this is when you need to feel a ensue of belonging, such as a relationship with someone, affection, family, a work group, and love. Development from O-death physical, Intellectual, emotional and social Conception and birth In the physical stage you are constantly growing In terms of biological cells growing from a cluster in the fallopian tubes to an embryo.By 8 weeks the embryo develops Into a fetus inside your mother's womb and develops tissues, limb, organs and senses, this process ends when your mother gives birth to you. In the Intellectual stage you do not learn anything as you do not thing. In the emotional stage you start o grow an attachment to your mother but you cannot have any self-work or concept as you cannot learn. In the social stage you grow a close relationship with your mum as she Is carrying you and her body Is feeding you this Is the only relationship that you develop in this stage as you have not been born yet so there for cannot build any relationships.You may feel a sense of belonging during pregnancy but that would be It. Infancy In the physical stage you keep constantly growing and developing you grow In height and weight to become stronger this is so that you can support you self you first start y supporting your head then move on to supporting your back when you sit up then you support yo ur whole body when you start standing up for the first time. Also your learn how to digest foods that are easily digest able at first then you go on to after you have been weaned of your mother's milk.The intellectual stage of infancy is that the child starts to communicate with words and is in the process of learning to speak. The child may also be able to count to 10 and say the alphabet but as doing this they do not actually know the meaning of what they are saying an example of this Is If you UT a lop In front of them and then 5 x ups they would chose the ups as they think that there are more of them and do not understand the concept of what they are 1 OFF like their parents or close family and friends if this effected in the infancy then it can affect you in later life.An example of this is that if you aren't securely attached to their mum or dad may in later life be not as able to cope with stress and other major life events. In the social stage of infancy by the age of 2 mont hs they may start to smile and by 3 months they will be able to respond to their parent's voices after 5 months they can recognize people that they have seen such as grandparents and family friends. They start to form an emotional attachment to their parents and by the age of 30 months -36 months they are playing alongside other children and making friends.Childhood In the physical stage children grow constantly but they do it at a slower speed than in infancy. By the age of 4 they will be able to kick and throw a large ball when the child is 6 its head will be only having ten per cent left to grow even though its body still has ages to grow fully. They may be able to skip or ride a bike. Their reproductive organs stay small and useless until puberty. In the intellectual stage children can now think logically and understand simple logical mind puzzles.You may find that a 7-8 year old may find it difficult to mentally imagine puzzles that do not make perfect sense or riddle like ques tions In the Emotional stage children start to use their imagination and they begin to understand the roles that others play in their life. They start to picture them self how they want them to be (ideal self) and their parent's relationship my how the child feels (sense of self-worth). The way that they act at school with their teacher and friends may influence there self-confidence if this stage goes wrong then in the long run and in adult hood they may feel a sense of failure or no self-worth.In the social stage young children are dependent on their careers such there parents they begin to learn social roles such as friendship and teacher student relationships. Adolescence In the physical stage the child/ adult are nearly fully grown and puberty starts to happen. This happens in girls between 11 and 13, it general happens for girls earlier than boys. Boys start puberty between the ages of 13 and 15. Puberty is the stage where the body starts to develop its sexual organs ready for sexual reproduction it is started by the release of hormones that control their sexual development.Both female and male will have a growth spurt at some point where they will grow in height at faster rate than usual. During in puberty girls breasts get larger and they start their fat layers start to increase under the skin. Also they get their menstrual periods and pubic hair starts to grow. During in puberty boys also get pubic hair as well as facial hair. Their voices break. This means that their voices get deeper in tone. Their testes and penis become larger. In the intellectual stage they are now an adult thinker and can thank through and solve complicated problems in their heads.They can work out a problem like the car won't start as the battery if dead or it needs more fuel. They also may start thinking abstractly and be able to solve a problem without seeing the end idea. In the emotional stage teen ages start to get a sense of their own identity and their sense of self star ts to develop further. In this time it may be trustful as they may not have very good self-esteem. This is linked to a person's sense of identity. A strong sense of identity is need so that loving sexual attachments can be made.This also means that they will feel secure in the work place when influenced by how their family affect them. Teenagers have to cope with becoming confident with their sexuality and also becoming socially independent from the family. Friends are important in this stage as they help them fit it and belong in a group. Teenagers will copy their friend's behavior and the way they dress as well as levels and cultural values. Adult hood In the physical stage you are at the peel of your physical performance from the age 18 – 28 this is proved by champions that do sport.This is because adults lose their strength and speed with age. Exercise can help you to develop your physical strength and can increase your fitness if you are overweight you will lose weight u ntil you are fit or have a good IBM. In the intellectual stage you are already fully developed fully and need to Get a Job during adulthood this involves learning new skills, skills can also be learn at the early stages of adulthood when a person leaves home and lives independently this can include cooking and managing a home budget. And then in the later years of adulthood adults begin to react more slowly.In the emotional stages your development starts when a person leaves home and starts to be independent and self-reliant also getting a new Job means you have to behave in a mature manner and you as a person starts controlling the way you respond to emotions. In the social stage you when an adult leaves home they start to build up ewe relationship like getting a partner or getting married and having their own family they start to love in different ways they love their friends, partners, family and children but in different ways.Being in a working atmosphere means that you develop work friendships as well as colleagues. Old age and the final stages of life In the physical stage older adults are more prone to putting on weight this may happen because they have become less active but still eating the same amount of food as when they were younger. Older adults also are at a higher risk of getting disease and disability. For women menopause happens around the age of 45-60 this is when they become less fertile and are not as able to conceive children.In the intellectual stage older adults like adult hood nothing has changed other than the fact that you learn something new every day. But as you get older you may start to forget things this may Just be because of old age or because of dementia or Alchemist's. Everyone is different so there intellectual development is different, for example someone could get dementia this could cause there intellectual development to be affected because they have loss of memory.In the emotional stages emotional development doesn't ch ange much but because of them getting older people can see them as less able and so that can knock there confidence as they can feel that they can't do what they use to be able to do. As you get older, a lot of your friends and family may have passed away because it's the end of their life. Also, older adults may be very close to someone who they had a great relationship and spent most their life with. This person may have passed away and the other person could die of heart ache.In social stages during these years there group of reined cut down and family start to become more important again. They can also be isolated and be on their own a lot of the time or with their partners and so they're not different social groups, such as going to bingo and meeting new people. My celebrity I picked Madonna as my celebrity in her early life she was born in Bay City, Michigan, on August 16, 1958 and her full time is Madonna Louise Veronica Concise. From the age of 5 Madonna had lost her mum due to cancer but she had also Just got a baby sister.The treatment or her mother had to be delayed until the baby reached full ERM, but by then the disease had grown too strong and she passed away on the 1 December 1963. This was a big shock to her and therefore had a tough childhood this may affected her emotional and social stages. Because of the career of singing her intellectual development has developed in relation to writing songs as money coming in was more important. Emotionally; she has been though a lot and from a young age was put under pressure and stress due to finance in the family and the death of her mum.And when she got older due to all the Jobs she is physically and mentally rained because as she has become more famous she has to think about his every move as her whole life is now for everyone to see. This could cause her to be stressed, or depressed as of the media. From a young age she wouldn't have been able to go out with friends as he would have been working as she had a Job and did a lot of ballet. And still as she gets older she has to be careful with who she trusts as because she is famous it could make her quite lonely as she needs to trust people even more than anyone else. References The health and social care LA book 1 P Unit September had then arranged an Interview with my form tutor who helped me Identify what opportunities a business degree in management would help me in she explained hat there are many Job roles and told me to research more into the Job roles and to check the new Vic website. Http://model. Enamel. AC. UK/ had then a broader idea to what I would be getting studying in university. I found out that there are many opportunities in different departments of management 11th Even though I understood what I would be studying in university I thought I would arrange a meeting with the career advisors to see if there are other options or better courses suited towards my needs.My findings suggested in the interview that my creative and writing skills were very good, they suggested me on looking into law as there is a law/ business management BAA honor 1 lath September was not too sure about studying law as I have never thought of studying it, but I thought I would check the requirements and also c heck what the course is all about. Http://WV. Westminster. AC. UK/courses/sub]sects/business-and-management/ undergraduate-courses/full-tale/fumble- management-law 1 OFF aspects of law as well, the economics side of it 11th September.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Faculty Member Participation in Decision-making of Universities Essay

Decisions encapsulate and encompass the people and system that make up any institution or organization. The decisions and those making them reflect one another to give an accurate and precise notion of how they want to be perceived generally. In this effect, those that are not accounted for in the decision making process are not reflected in the notion of perception by society. Therefore, I am proposing that the faculty member must be given ample respect and opportunity in the decisions of the university. This proposal shall thus center its attention at the teaching staff members of University of Nottingham in Australia and king Saud University in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The main issue that is a stake here is the value and importance of including the decisions of a member of a teaching staff in the overall decisions in the university. The underlying implication here is to ask whether or not the decision of a faculty staff member will be beneficial or detrimental to the university. Moreover, pragmatically speaking, the decision process of any university must take into consideration the ideas and contributions of every staff and school official due to the fact that each of them knows what is happening in the university from their own point of view and at the same time, they will also be affected by the decisions they make. The decision that does not include other related aspects that can be attributed to it such as those that a faculty staff member can bring in making decisions will not be as encompassing as it should be. It is therefore a privilege to make this study and be able to promulgate this stand of revolutionizing the decision making process in the university so that it may truly encapsulate the very nature and purpose of what it really means to make the decisions. And at the same time, this research will draw the spotlight to where darkness has already made its niche; the unheard voices of the teaching staff members. Relevant Theories and Literature People say that making decisions is like speaking prose because they do it all the time knowingly and unknowingly. It is thus hardly surprising that the topic of decision making involves many disciplines, from mathematics to statistics, through economics and political science, to sociology and psychology (Kahneman and Tversky, 2000). Still, there are even some who liken and compare the nature of decision making to that of the game of chess analyzing the complex and multiple implications that it entails (Katsenelinboigen, 1997). While on the other hand, there are those who rely on statistical and mathematical facts administering decision theory (Berger, 1980). The responsibility of decision making and taking decisions are considered the essence of the administrative process as emphasized by Simon (AL Masri, 1989) since it forms an important part of the positions needed by humanitarian institutions including higher educational institutions. Academic sections in university faculties of different specialties are considered a means for satisfying universities basic objectives as 80% of administrative decisions are taken at the level of departments (Athuhaibti, 1981). The academic department, as seen by Anderson, is the academic unit that involves specialists in research, teaching and other academic aspects. Decision making in the administrative sphere consists of three basic pillars. The first one is about the availability of a human person in a position that has its special circumstances. Secondly, it also important to think in those circumstances to find an outlet to them. And lastly, it is vital to think right to be able to ensure an effective outlet or a suitable alternative. In another aspect, if this is seen from a statistical perspective, the decision making aspect of every problem can actually be formalized through an explicit specification covering the available decisions, the items of cost and gain involved in making the decisions and the relevant probability distributions (De Groot, 2004). Therefore, it is of great importance and of considerable value that a teaching staff member in a university’s department to be given the amount of respect in sharing the responsibilities in making the important decisions with regard to the university whether it is in a large scale level or in a small scale level. Such a person must be heard and be given significant attention for the very reason that the person who can make the best, most practical and most meaningful decisions are the very persons who are affected by the issues at hand and also the very persons for whom the decision will be made in the first place. How can anyone make a concrete and feasible decision if the very person making the decision does not even fully understand and feel the root and effects of the very decision itself? Moreover, it must be absolutely imperative that superiors deal with their subordinates under the bases of psycho humanitarian manners. What is essential to comprehend here is the fact that every person must be treated as a human being and not just a mere willing tool carrying out tasks. People must never be treated as a mere object disregarding their moral feelings and existence who are just as affected by the environment and the natural surroundings like everyone else regardless of their race, gender, color, ethnicity, educational attainment, and nationality. As a result, leadership should pay attention to the needs of their subordinates in a serious way. Thus, another essential thing is the value of loyalty. Loyalty here is not lopsided where in one side shall receive all the benefits while the other lifts the burdens of responsibility. The subordinates must be loyal to their leaders, and in the same way, the leaders must be loyal and even responsible for their subordinates. At the end of the day, both sides must work as one and realize that loyalty and responsibility does not only come through carrying out decisions, but more importantly, it is about the successful dialogue and participation in decision making by all. The subject matter of this study shall delve into the necessity and the relevancy of the involvement of the teaching staff members in the decision making process in the administrative arena qualifying and valuing their decision making contributions and capabilities not only for the betterment of the university but for the growth and development of the teaching staff members as well. This will then give credence and moral boosting performance and efficiency to their respective academic fields. This will further create more new and viable ideas that are usually unnoticed and ignored due to the massiveness of certain issues that are encountered in the decision making process. In addition, this will greatly lessen the burden of responsibility and the pressure of infallibility carried by the higher officials. Some institutions and organizations find the decision making process to be so relatively important that computer-based decision support systems have been invented to assist decision makers in considering the implications of various courses of thinking and help reduce risk in human errors (Flyvbjerg, 2006) Study Methodology This research shall depend in studying the subject and issues at hand through an analytical descriptive method. The research method will follow any deduction that takes this phenomenon from psychological and educational aspects as it is in present time for the purpose of diagnosing, revealing and identifying the relationships among its components or among educational, psychological or social aspects (Al-Ghanem, 1988). The focal point in this research method is seeing the interconnectedness and most importantly, the interdependence of every aspect and relationship that the faculty staff member has with the university. Empirical Work With regard to the empirical data that needs to be collected for this research, the primary source to look with respect to this proposal is the system of the university itself. This comprises of knowing who makes the decisions and how these people make them. The university structural hierarchy will give an ample specification of the decision making process in the university. Moreover, the opinions of the faculty staff members and school officials in relation to the decision making process will be a good foundation for this research. It is also of considerable value in tackling this issue by understanding the location and type of universities that will be assesses as well as the country or culture of the faculty staff members and school officials who will be involved. This research will concentrate on two universities as mentioned. The advantage of this is that the research will have a vast and diverse analysis on the matter and will not be limited by the boundaries that are set by the geographical location. The disadvantage of this research might be seen in the inconsistency in any information gathered. This may arise because of location of the universities and also the willingness of people to give truthful and relevant information. It is expected that this research may cause hesitancy to certain people due to the delicate issue it is asserting. Study Importance The importance of this study arises from the fact that it is going to: 1. Highlight the necessity of opening new horizons to a teaching staff member concerning the optimal method of participating in decision making so as to be an active member in promoting administrative work, which in turn also serves as an academic work done by the member himself. 2. Help the teaching staff member in employing and enhancing his various abilities and techniques in fields widening their knowledge aside from teaching, i. e. getting him outside the closed circle of academic work as well. 3. This study will transform and alter the terms of knowing the participation of a teaching staff member in decision making in University of Nottingham and King Saud University. 4. Add new information and recommendations that help and benefit in increasing the effective participation of a teaching staff member in decision making in those two universities. Study Objectives This study aims to identify teaching staff members’ points of view or perception regarding their participation in making decisions in University of Nottingham and King Saud University and in a way that is more defined; this current study aims at the following: 1. Identifying the extent of teaching staff members’ participation or contribution in university decision making in University of Nottingham and King Saud University. 2. Knowing the extent of difference in the points of view of the subjects of the study sample concerning participation in decision making with the difference of study variables. 3. Identifying the degree of importance of teaching staff member in university decision making by perceiving it through three dimensional studies: the academic dimension, the administrative dimension and the financial dimension. 4. Diagnose the obstacles that can lead a teaching staff member not to participate in making university decisions. Let it therefore be stated that this study tries to state out the motives and value of the teaching staff members in participating in decision making process at the level of the University of Nottingham in Australia and king Saud University in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as well as the factors that hamper or hinder their participation in an effective and beneficial way. Study Questions: The researcher will discuss his study questions with respect to the objectives mentioned above, therefore, the study will revolve around the following four questions: Question (1) How far or to what extent can a teaching staff member of the University of Nottingham participate in the university’s decision making process from the point of view of the study sample individuals? Question (2) How far or to what extent can a teaching staff member of the King Saud University participate in the university’s decision making process from the point of view of the study sample individuals? Question (3) Are there any statistical differences among the points on view of the study sample subjects concerning the participation extent in university decision making in accordance with demographic variables (gender, nationality, academic degree and experience)? Question (4) Does the degree of extent of a teaching staff member’s participation in university decision making differs towards the three dimensional study: â€Å"the academic dimension, the administrative dimension and the financial dimension† with the demographic variables: â€Å"gender, nationality and the difference in job (administrative and non administrative)? Question (5) What are the obstacles or hindrances that lead the teaching staff member from refraining or from being prevented to participate in university decision making from the points of view of study sample individuals? Conclusion I am therefore optimistic that this research can revolutionize or change the traditional way of how faculty staff members, school officials and universities think and interact in their own school communities. This research can further foster dialogue with regard to the conflicts that may arise between faculty staff members and school officials. This research can also bring about beneficial and better improvements to the university as a whole through having a comprehensive decision making process. This research makes an original contribution in the issue at hand because of the diversity in the information and subjects that are discussed which are not limited to only one culture, system or location thereby filling the gaps of other related researches that have narrowly focused in a limited subject and area. Finally, this research can expand to improving educational systems as a whole and also foster a developmental analysis on faculty staff member or school officials as indivudals. References: 1. Al-Masri, Ahmad Mohammad. (1989) Communications, Decisions and their Effectiveness in Administration, Dubai, Dar Al-Kalam. 2. Berger, James O. (1980) Statistical Decision Theory and Bayesian Analysis. 2nd ed. Springer Series in Statistics. 3. Best John, translated by Abdullaziz Ghanem Al-Ghanem and revised by Adel Izziddin Al-Ashwal. (1988) Educational Research Methods. Al-Kuwait Institution for Scientific Development, The Directorate of writing, translation and publishing, Al-Kuwait. 4. De Groot, Morris. (2004) Optimal Statistical Decisions. Wiley Classics Library. 5. Flyvbjerg, Bent. (2006) From Nobel Prize to Project Management: Getting Risks Right. Project Management Journal, vol. 37, no. 3, August 2006, pp. 5-15. 6. Kahneman, Daniel and Tversky, Amos. (2000) Choice, Values, Frames. The Cambridge University Press. 7. Katsenelinboigen, Aron. (1997) The Concept of Indeterminism and Its Applications: Economics, Social Systems, Ethics, Artificial Intelligence, and Aesthetics Praeger: Westport, Connecticut.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Great Depression Basics and Roosevelts New Deal

Great Depression Basics and Roosevelt's New Deal The Great Depression was a period of worldwide economic depression that lasted from 1929 until approximately 1939. The starting point of the Great Depression is usually listed as October 29, 1929, commonly called Black Tuesday. This was the date when the stock market fell dramatically 12.8%. This was after two previous stock market crashes on Black Tuesday (October 24), and Black Monday (October 28). The Dow Jones Industrial Average would eventually bottom out by July, 1932 with a loss of approximately 89% of its value. However, the actual causes of the Great Depression are much more complicated than just the stock market crash. In fact, historians and economists do not always agree about the exact causes of the depression. Throughout 1930, consumer spending continued to decline which meant businesses cut jobs thereby increasing unemployment. Further, a severe drought across America meant that agricultural jobs were reduced. Countries across the globe were affected and many protectionist polices were created thereby increasing the problems on a global scale. Franklin Roosevelt and His New Deal Herbert Hoover was president at the beginning of the Great Depression. He tried to institute reforms to help stimulate the economy but they had little to no effect. Hoover did not believe that the federal government should be directly involved in economic affairs and would not fix prices or change the value of the currency. Instead, he focused on helping states and private businesses to provide relief.   By 1933, unemployment in the United States was at a staggering 25%. Franklin Roosevelt easily defeated Hoover who was seen as out of touch and uncaring. Roosevelt became president on March 4, 1933 and immediately instituted the first New Deal.  This was a comprehensive group of short-term recovery programs, many of which were modeled on those that Hoover had attempted to create. Roosevelts New Deal not only included economic aid, work assistance programs, and greater control over businesses but also the end of the gold standard and of prohibition. This was then followed by the Second New Deal programs which included more long-term assistance such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Social Security System, the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), Fannie Mae, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC). However, there is still question today about the effectiveness of many of these programs as a recession occurred in 1937 -38. During these years, unemployment rose again. Some blame the New Deal programs as being hostile towards businesses. Others state that the New Deal, while not ending the Great Depression, at least helped the economy by increasing regulation and preventing further decay. No one can argue that the New Deal fundamentally changed the way that the federal government interacted with the economy and the role it would take in the future. In 1940, unemployment was still at 14%. However, with Americas entry into World War II and subsequent mobilization, unemployment rates dropped to 2% by 1943. While some argue that the war itself did not end the Great Depression, others point to the increase in government spending and increased job opportunities as reasons why it was a large part of the national economic recovery. Learn more about the Great Depression Era: Causes of the Great DepressionNew Deal ProgramsNew Deal AcronymsHerbert Hoover BiographyFranklin Roosevelt Biography

Monday, October 21, 2019

How the Government effect jobs. essays

How the Government effect jobs. essays The Federal government affects my parents employers business more than any other level of government. My dad works for a small research company call Stolle Milk Biologics. The first way it is affected is with taxes. The business has to pay taxes on many things. For Instance, property taxes, social security and many others like importing and exporting products to Asia. They also have to pay for workers compensation in case someone gets hurt on the job. The federal government also monitors what type of things they study. They could study dangerous viruses or use dangerous chemicals and the government must be notified. They have to request the things they want to study from the government. There are also safety regulations from the United States Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration because their new product is a great tasting soymilk called Nuvem. They also apply for patents for material they create from the US government in order to not allow other com panies to copy them. When my dads company needs money for research they apply for United States grants. This is money that is given to a company for the purpose of research. If my dads company ever needs to transport toxic, dangerous, or hazardous waste there are strict regulations on how they can remove it. The Drug Enforcement Agency has to be contacted whenever my dads company works with any regulated drugs and alcohol. Thats who they contact to get the substances and it is watched carefully how it is used. It has to be locked up at all times. My dads company is new so it is still a privately sold stock. So it has to follow regulations put down by the Security exchange commission on selling its stock. They also are forced to keep good accounting practices so they wont be audited. They also need to follow rules for 401k-retirement account, which the company matches each employees investment. My moms work, General Ele...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Women too apologetic in the boardroom - Emphasis

Women too apologetic in the boardroom Women too apologetic in the boardroom The language women use in meetings could be holding them back in business, according to new research. The study, an 18-month long examination of the speaking patterns of men and women within seven major companies, was run by applied linguistics lecturer Dr Judith Baxter. The biggest difference Dr Baxter noticed between the sexes was womens tendency to use humour, self-deprecation and apologetic language, apparently to avoid conflict. Indeed, they were found to be four times more likely to employ these techniques than men, who tended to be more direct and openly confrontational. And this could be undermining their own authority and making them look weak and defensive. [Women] have to work really hard to hit the right note with their colleagues, says Dr Baxter. I have seen a woman use all the wrong linguistic strategies, and she lost the room. This problematic habit occurs most, it seems, where women feel particularly outnumbered by men in meetings. And given that only 12.5 per cent of FTSE-100 company board members are women, the issue looks to have the makings of a vicious circle.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Trifles ( A Play) by Susan Glaspell Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Trifles ( A Play) by Susan Glaspell - Essay Example The fact that Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters are addressed as such while the men are called â€Å"County Attorney† and â€Å"Sheriff† somehow simply affords the women a rather cheap, subservient role of a wife and somehow demeans the role of women in society in general. Aside from being assigned subservient roles, the women in the play are shown to be â€Å"worrying over trifles,† which implies that women in 20th century America are concerned about anything but useful (Glaspell). In the play, Haley somehow ridicules the women for â€Å"worrying over trifles† because instead of worrying about the crime, they worry a lot about the preserves that Mrs. Wright has left frozen (Glaspell). The two women also busy themselves with other â€Å"trifles† such as Mrs. Wright’s sewing things (Glaspell). The fact that women are shown to be worrying over trifles may also imply that they too should be treated like trifles themselves. The play also shows that women are inferior to men and should simply just keep themselves silent. What Mrs. Hale means when she mentions, â€Å"We think the—cat got it,† seems to be the old expression to mean that one is speechless: â€Å"Has the cat got your tongue?† (Glaspell; Holstein 285). This means that women in America in the early 20th century somehow did not have a voice of their own in a male-dominated society. In fact, throughout the whole play, Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters are considered ignorant by the men. The suspect Mrs. Wright may also have been forced to keep silent by her husband, and so this could have become her motive for killing him. Moreover, one symbol in the play used to show that the silence of women is the dead bird in the birdcage with its neck wrung. The singing bird was once Mrs. Wright – â€Å"one of the town girls singing in the choir† (Glaspell). However, her marriage turned her into a dead bird that

Friday, October 18, 2019

Evaluating international business communications situations Essay - 8

Evaluating international business communications situations - Essay Example Since culture is a social construct, communication patterns differ from culture to culture and so does the way in which business is conducted (Bannon and Mattock 2003, p. 5). Communication across cultures plays a pivotal role when considering dealing with individuals outside of one’s home country (Hooker 2012). In business, particularly when going through the negotiation process and endeavoring to establish successful international operations, businesses carefully consider the cultural differences and try to adopt a communication strategy that will not hurt their chances of doing business (Gibson 2002, p. 1; Hendon, Hendon and Herbig 1996). Multi-national corporations, international joint ventures, and cross-country acquisitions are some business partnerships that involve cross-cultural interactions and hence an understanding of the different cultural communication patterns and discourses. What is acceptable in one culture may not be acceptable or appropriate in another. Succe ssful interactions are those that involve a good knowledge of the cultural differences and global etiquette (Martin and Chaney 2012, p. ix). Geert Hofstede has conducted a large number of researches based on cultural aspects of communication. His theory on cultural dimensions explains the various bipolar variables or aspects of a particular culture that impacts cross-cultural communication, including power distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, uncertainty avoidance, pragmatism versus normativeness, and indulgence versus restraint (The Hofstede Centre 2014; Hofstede 1993, p. 89-90). Asian cultures, and particularly the South Asian and Chinese cultures are essentially collectivist, which means that they possess a sense of group affiliation and association rather than their individualist counterparts who have a greater sense of being an autonomous entity. Also, the differentiation between low-context

2014 denominated the top five countries Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

2014 denominated the top five countries - Essay Example The Euro is a currency used by 17 member countries within the Eurozone. The European Central Bank is the central bank for the joint Eurozone countries. According to forex traders, the euro can trade in between 30 to 40 pips on average, albeit prone to changes in the bond market. Today, 1 Euro is equivalent to U.S. $ 1.36. Established in 1882, the Bank of Japan controls the second largest economy in the world. The Japanese Yen has become popular in less developed economies in Asia such as Vietnam, North Korea, Cambodia, and Laos. As a result of the growing Japanese economy, the Yen has drastically improved; 1Japanse Yen is equivalent to 0.0098 U.S. dollar. The British Pound, Queen’s currency, is controlled by the Bank of England. Until the World War, the British Pound had been the most traded currency in the world. On the contrary, the currency now exchanges with the U.S dollar at $ 1.70. The Swiss Franc is served by the Swiss National Bank, with both public and private ownership. According to forex trading reports, one U.S. dollar was equivalent to 5 francs back in 1994. Today, 1FR exchanges as U.S. $

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 11

Reflection - Essay Example Older adults make a big percentage of the people with chronic conditions (Lynda, 2012). They have chronic illnesses like disabilities, dementia and arthritis among others. Older adults experience hospitalizations and sometimes face poor or low healthcare. Due to their continuous illnesses, they require constant attention to ensure they are protected (Jacki, 2008). Protection is essential for the older adults because it helps in ensuring that the quality of life and wellness is improved at all times. Old people require various health care services and tend to have various complex situations and thus there is need for professional expertise to protect them against further harm to their health. Protecting the older adult in a mental health ward is an issue because the old people with mental problems can easily end up institutional care and they recover less well from any physical problems and can be vulnerable to abuse (Steven, 2011). There was a scenario I witnessed in which a male older adult in a mental health ward was discriminated by the caregiver assigned to take care of him. He feeding on unhealthy food left by his bed-side by the caregiver. Before it was established, the patient had already developed abdominal complications because the caregiver did not bother to ensure that the patient fed on clean food. This was also extended to the treatment administered to the patient because the elderly patient was not getting medication as per the stipulated time by the doctor. This eventually worsened his health condition which would have been better if the right care was given to him. In this particular scenario, the caregiver had discriminated the older adult who was slow to eat and thus he could just leave the food by his bedside because the caregiver had developed anger in handling the mentally ill older adult. Protection of the mentally hill older adults is emphasized by the government policy. Old people need to be protected from any

Extra credits Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Extra credits - Essay Example Dith Pran had suffered a great deal for approximately four years before he was able to escape to a refugee camp. Here he was later rescued and reunited with his friend Schanberg. The evacuation from Saigon led to clearing of and falls in Phnom Penh paved way for a more ruthless Khmer Rouge that led to the ruthless genocide in which a lot of people lost their lives (Dawn, Remsing, Hmong Folklore). The film tried to preserve the historical accuracy and ideologies and the portrayal of events as they happened. A lot is learned from the film, even though, the producers skipped some issues that occurred. They try to keep the most important issues like cultures to give the film the touch of Cambodia setting and portray the genocide picture in a clear way especially when panic and desperation arises when violence breaks out. This is an American film that talks about Hmong American community and a retired auto worker Walt Kowalski. Kowalski is a lonely man since his children do not really care about him. In addition, the neighbours he was used to had moved to other places and others passed away and misplaced by Hmong immigrants from Southeast Asia who he hated so much. His life was a quiet one until someone tried to still his Gran Torino. From this event, a young man called Thao is introduced to Walt’s life when his gang forces him to go and steal Walt’s Gran Torino. However, he was caught red-handed, and Walt decided not to shoot him. When Thao’s mother and sister Sue discover what Thao had planned to do they forced him to work for Walt as a way of apologising, he was forced to do odd jobs. This relationship of Walt and Thao lead to the change of their lives. They treated each other as a family to a point where Walt includes Thao in his will leaving him the Gran Torino in a condition that he will never try to modify it in any way. He also

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 11

Reflection - Essay Example Older adults make a big percentage of the people with chronic conditions (Lynda, 2012). They have chronic illnesses like disabilities, dementia and arthritis among others. Older adults experience hospitalizations and sometimes face poor or low healthcare. Due to their continuous illnesses, they require constant attention to ensure they are protected (Jacki, 2008). Protection is essential for the older adults because it helps in ensuring that the quality of life and wellness is improved at all times. Old people require various health care services and tend to have various complex situations and thus there is need for professional expertise to protect them against further harm to their health. Protecting the older adult in a mental health ward is an issue because the old people with mental problems can easily end up institutional care and they recover less well from any physical problems and can be vulnerable to abuse (Steven, 2011). There was a scenario I witnessed in which a male older adult in a mental health ward was discriminated by the caregiver assigned to take care of him. He feeding on unhealthy food left by his bed-side by the caregiver. Before it was established, the patient had already developed abdominal complications because the caregiver did not bother to ensure that the patient fed on clean food. This was also extended to the treatment administered to the patient because the elderly patient was not getting medication as per the stipulated time by the doctor. This eventually worsened his health condition which would have been better if the right care was given to him. In this particular scenario, the caregiver had discriminated the older adult who was slow to eat and thus he could just leave the food by his bedside because the caregiver had developed anger in handling the mentally ill older adult. Protection of the mentally hill older adults is emphasized by the government policy. Old people need to be protected from any

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Trusts Law And Reasons For Appeal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Trusts Law And Reasons For Appeal - Essay Example 2. The facts of the High Court case are as follows: Vallee the plaintiff was an adopted child of the deceased. She was staying in France, but one day she called on the deceased before his demise in the third quarter of 2003. She promised him that she would return during Christmas, to which he answered that he did not contemplate to live up to the time and that his desire was to hand over his house to her upon his death. The deceased handed over the title deeds to the land on which the house was built and a key to the estate to her. He also gave her a plastic container with his war treasures and a photo album. Four months later, he passed on. The defendant was informed of her father’s demise by the Coroner’s Office, which regretted that the deceased had not left any valid will specifying how the estate would be divided. 3. In 2006, the defendant directed lawyers, who contacted the treasury solicitor in writing to claim the property on the grounds that her father had given it to her by a donatio mortis causa; which is a gift whose ownership remains conditional until the death of the donor. The treasury refused her claim and proceeded with an advertisement for any potential claimants.  The defendant, a clinician who was running a business organization named â€Å"Celtic Research Limited†, established through his â€Å"heir hunting† that the deceased had a surviving male sibling, Mr. Mykola Bogusz. He acquired a power of attorney from the surviving Bogusz and made applications for, and was given documents for administering the property on October 8, 2009, â€Å"for (his) use and benefit.† The treasury solicitor permitted Mykola Bogusz’s claim and placed a caveat on the property against further claims. Ms. Vallee filed proceedings in court seeking to claim the property by a donatio mortis causa. 4. The case came before the Oxford County Court on 26th October 2012 and was presided over by Justice Harris.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Native Americans in the United States and African Americans Essay Example for Free

Native Americans in the United States and African Americans Essay Introduction Joel Spring’s Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality examines the educational policies in the United States that have resulted in intentional patterns of oppression by Protestant, European Americans against racial and ethnic groups. The historical context of the European American oppressor is helpful in understanding how the dominant group has manipulated the minority groups. These minority groups include Americans who are Native, African, Latin/Hispanic, and Asian. Techniques for deculturalization were applied in attempts to erase the oppressed groups’ previous identities and to assimilate them into society at a level where they could be of use to the oppressors. Techniques include isolation from family, replacement of language, denial of education, inclusion of dominant group world view, and provision of inferior teachers and poor facilities. Relationships between educational policy and instances of racism and patterns of oppression are explored in the following. A section will also compare my prior education to the one presented in Spring’s book. Formatting Understanding how European Americans have been able to perceive themselves as superior in psychological, spiritual, racial, and cultural terms is integral to seeing how cultural genocide has occurred in the United States. The basic program is taken from the Roman Imperium which delegates the authority to civilize others by erasing their laws and culture and simultaneously or subsequently installing new laws and mores from the dominant group into the minority group. This plan has been applied by U. S. educators and politicians in an attempt to carry out a perceived upgrade from an inferior cultural program to the superior Anglo-Saxon mixed with Protestantism point of view. This civilized versus uncivilized and Christian versus Pagan viewpoints reveal themselves throughout the history of U. S. education. Native Americans In the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, Native Americans were granted citizenship by the descendants of European immigrants who invaded their territory over 400 years ago. In the years before and after 1924, Native Americans have experienced cultural genocide, deculturalization, and denial of education (Spring, 2010, pp. 8-9). For example, the Naturalization Act of 1790 excluded Native Americans from citizenship, thus preventing them from having a political voice in their rapidly changing world. In 1867, the Indian Peace Commission made 2 requirements for U. S. citizenship: 1) rejection of native religions and 2) acceptance of middle-class American Christianity. The bases of a philosophy that uses superiority and inferiority include racial, linguistic and cultural differences. For European American educators, the â€Å"civilizing† of Native Americans included the installing of a work ethic, the creation of desire to accumulate property; the repression of pleasure, particularly sexual pleasure; the establishment of a nuclear family structure with the father in control; the implementation of authoritarian child-rearing practices; and conversion to Christianity (p. 14). The U. S. government’s program of Native American deculturalization was developed in part because it was less costly than fighting and killing them. Thomas Jefferson’s civilization program called for government agents to establish schools to teach women to spin and sew and men farming and husbandry (p. 18). Educational policies such as this set the stage for purchasing land and avoiding costly wars. In 1830, the Indian Removal Act authorized the President to set aside lands west of the Mississippi for exchange of Indian Land east of the Mississippi (p. 28). Cultural-ecological theory puts Native Americans in the category of involuntary minorities. They were conquered and forced into European American customs and beliefs. Replacing the use of native languages with English, destroying Indian customs and teaching allegiance to the U. S. government became major educational policies of the U. S. government toward Indians in the latter part of the 19th century. An important part of these educational policies was the boarding school designed to remove children from their families at an early age and thereby isolate them from the language and customs of their parents and tribes (p. 32). The Carlisle Indian School in Carlisle, PA became the first boarding school for Native American children in 1879. Here deculturalization methods were employed. From this methodology and perspective, the patronizing term cultural deprivation has come to imply that a group is without culture altogether (Nieto and Bode, 2008, p. 176). One of the perceived deficiencies of Native Americans was their propensity to share which caused the European Americans to label them as socialists which was anathema to the dominant group’s philosophy. Richard Pratt, the founder of the Carlisle School, sought to instill individualism and self responsibility in order to break Indians from a socialist style of sharing. All boarding and reservation schools taught in English with exceptions including some Choctaw and Cherokee schools that utilized bilingual education. In 1928, the Meriam Report reversed the philosophy that isolation of children was required. The new view was that education should occur in one’s family and community. Several decades later, from 1968 to 1990, a number of legislative acts addressed the mistakes of deculturalization. It was not until 1974 that Indian students were granted freedom of religion and culture by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Later, in 1978, Congress granted all Native Americans religious freedom. The Native American Languages Act of 1990 commits the U. S. government to reverse its historic position which was to erase and replace Native American culture. However, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 reverses attempts to preserve usage of minority languages (Spring, 2010, p. 135). The destruction of cultural self determination for Native American Indians is saddening. By breaking their connection to their native culture through reeducation camps, European Americans justified a world view that saw color of skin and dogma as beacons of superiority. African Americans. Historically, Africans have been involuntary immigrants who were brought to the U. S. to be slaves. They have faced numerous forms of educational oppression based upon perceived racial differences. For example, from 1800 to 1835, education of enslaved Africans was banned. Spring notes that plantation owners were in constant fear of slave revolts and consequently denied their workers any form of education (p. 43). Furthermore, because of the need for children as farm laborers, planters resisted most attempts to expand educational opportunities for black children (p. 57). Schools for African Americans were underfunded after the Civil War (Nieto and Bode, 2008, p. 44). Segregation of blacks and whites was the order of the day for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This resulted in a racial divide, unequal school funding, and inferior facilities. An exception to segregated schooling occurred in 1855 in Massachusetts when it became a requirement to integrate schools. In 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment included a clause that appeared to disallow segregation. However this clause has been used to implement segregation in schools also. African Americans from northern states helped those in the transition from slavery to freedom. However there was a division between the philosophies of Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois. Washington negotiated for segregated schools while Du Bois, in 1909, formed the National Association of Colored People (NAACP) which worked for desegregation (Spring, 2010, p. 52). Washington established the Tuskegee Institute in 1881 after attending the Hampton Institute which was founded by General Samuel Armstrong. The Hampton Institute was an educational model designed to keep blacks subordinate. The primary purpose of the Tuskegee Institute was to prepare freed slaves to be teachers who could instill work values in other freed slaves (p. 33). The Tuskegee Institute received support from Industrialist Andrew Carnegie who saw the apartheid model in South Africa as a format for educating black southerners. Conversely, Du Bois and the NAACP fought against the status quo of a permanent African American underclass in education and the economy (p. 62). It was not until 1954 that the Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools were unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education. The court ruled that separate but equal has no place in education. The separate but equal legislation was from the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. Title 6 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, established the precedent for using disbursement of government money as a means of controlling educational policies (p. 117). Additionally, much credit is given to Martin Luther King Jr. for helping move forward civil rights legislation of 1964. The Voting Rights Act and the Civil Rights Act, in the 1950s and 1960s respectively, gave African Americans political equality as well as the right to vote. African Americans have made significant gains in the past 100 years; however, the pace of change has been painfully slow. The election of a part African American President is a strong indication that we as a country have come a long way. Hispanic/Latino Americans After the conquest of Mexican and Puerto Rican lands, the U. S. government instituted deculturalization programs to ensure that these new populations would not rise up against their new government (p. 84). As with other groups, the Naturalization Act of 1790 blocked them from attaining citizenship because they were not white. Despite the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1948, Mexican Americans were not given actual citizenship. Citizenship rights were abridged throughout the Southwest through limitations placed on voting rights and segregation in public accommodations and schooling (p. 89). Moreover, in many instances, U. S. farmers did not want the children of Mexicans to go to school, because they wanted them to work longer hours. Mexican students were forced to speak English in schools. In the last half of the nineteenth century, Mexican Americans tried to escape the anti-Mexican attitudes by attending Catholic schools. Here linguistic diversity was respected. Puerto Rico became a colony of the United States in 1898. Again, as with Native American Indians, government policy concluded that it was less costly to instill and replace culture in Puerto Rican schools than it was to employ force with the military. Teachers who only spoke English came from the U. S. to teach students who mainly spoke Spanish. U. S. educational policy in Puerto Rico attempted to replace Spanish with English as the majority language and to introduce children to the dominant U. S. culture (p. 100). Examples of deculturalization methods included U. S. flag ceremonies and studies focusing on the traditions of the dominant white culture of the United States. In 1912, the Puerto Rican Teachers Association resisted the educational policies of the U. S. and defended the use of Spanish in school. One’s native language is the foundation for future learning (Nieto and Bode, 2008, p. 235). In 1951, after 50 years of struggle, Puerto Rico became a commonwealth. Subsequently, Spanish was once again used in the schools without the dogma of English only laws. Additionally, in 1968, the Bilingual Education Act was passed. It was not until 1974 that the Equal Educational Opportunities Act gave protection to the language rights of students for whom English is not their native language (p. 243). Presently, there are many voluntary immigrants from Latin America. These students are often faced with an assimilation policy which is aimed at Americanizing them. Frequently hybridity is the order of the day for these students. Only blind arrogance could make a dominant group believe that they could go to an island of Spanish-speaking people and teach them a new culture in a new language. As with other groups, the denial of schooling or segregation was maintained in order to continue subordinating the minority. Asian Americans Asian Americans, many of whom were voluntary immigrants, include persons from China, Philippines, Japan, Korea, India, Viet Nam, Laos, Thailand and other counties. The combination of racism and economic exploitation resulted in educational policies designed to deny Asians schooling or to provide segregated schools (Spring, 2010, p. 68). In 1872 the California school code provided no public education for Asian Americans while in 1906, the San Francisco School Board created segregated schools for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students. Finally, in 1974, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Chinese American parents in Lau v. Nichols. The decision required public schools to provide special assistance to non-English-speaking students to learn English so that they could equally participate in the educational process (p. 124). Each group of minority Americans has pushed for improvements in the educational system. By persevering, they have been able to move toward a more equitable educational system. However, there is still the dominant European American paradigm in place. As the percentage of minority Americans rises in the coming decades, I believe we will see a movement toward a more multicultural paradigm. Personal Comparisons My early education took place in an environment of white teachers and students. The furthest my exposure to different cultures went was going to school and growing up with my Catholic and Jewish neighbors. My elementary school and middle school were 100% white and my high school had 2 Hispanic students. For me, this was normal; I knew little of other cultures. When I reflect on my American History and Social Studies classes, I recall a sanitized story presented with many stories about honorable white men. Although I finished my high school education in 1977, I do not believe that Martin Luther King Jr. or Civil Rights was mentioned once. Moreover, a great deal of social upheaval obviously was occurring; however, the only topic related to the turmoil of the era that made it to my awareness was the war in Viet Nam. After high school, I attended a small private college in Pennsylvania where approximately 30 African Americans and 10 Hispanic students attended. I was acquainted with one of the Hispanic students who had a poster of Che Guevara in his room. All of my professors were apparently European Americans and I continued to study mostly dominant culture stories. Recognizing my own lack of personal direction, I dropped out of school and entered into my own version of home schooling. I purchased a bus ticket for Tucson, Arizona; however, I first stopped in Washington D. C. to visit my Aunt. She took me to a book store where I bought some philosophy books. I explored different philosophies and literature. I travelled, worked, read and explored my values and beliefs. I returned to my home town, Lancaster, PA, and decided to return to formal University life at Millersville State University. From 1984-1987, I again had European American professors. In 1991, I reentered Millersville University to take some graduate courses. I looked into getting a graduate assistantship and found an opening in a program called Upward Bound. I interviewed with the director, whom I knew from earlier years, and with a Filipino and African American student. I got the position and subsequently was working in a multicultural enterprise. I prepared lessons for high school children from multiple ethnic groups. The reason Spring’s history of minority Americans was not part of my education was because I was raised in a racially homogenous region. I think that I could have driven east 20 miles, south 15 miles or north 5 miles and everybody would have been white. Going west 2 miles would take me into the middle of Lancaster city where many African Americans and Puerto Rican Americans live. However, I lived a provincial life and did not interact much with people from other cultures in my youth. Furthermore, it was standard policy at that time to teach from a Eurocentric point of views. The effect on White Americans of an Anglocentric and Eurocentric perspective, which does not include minority Americans, is an incomplete and inaccurate understanding of self and world. The effects on minority Americans also leads to an incomplete and inaccurate understanding of self and world include, as well as increased dropout rates and resistance to education. Additionally, cultural discontinuities may contribute to negative academic outcomes (Nieto and Bode, 2008, pp 181-182). Another effect on minority Americans is clearly a net feeling of not being included in the past and possibly being excluded from present and future events. Exclusion’s result is well described in Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man. In this book, the narrator is unable to be seen or recognized because he is black. From Spring’s book I learned about the many minority groups that were mistreated and intentionally harmed at personal and cultural levels. Furthermore, I was ignorant about the attempts at deculturalization of Puerto Ricans. Additionally, I knew little about the detailed history of denying education to Asian and Mexican Americans. While I knew about reeducation and denial of education of Native and African Americans, I did not know the extent to which political, economic, and social forces combined to prevent these groups from experiencing their historical culture or from participating in the dominant, European American culture. Conclusion European Americans have quashed cultures in the United States through education. Native American, African, Hispanic, and Asian minorities have witnessed a persistent attack on their beliefs, values, and languages by those who either 1) thought that they were better or 2) wanted to deprive others of their pursuit of happiness in order to support economic and political position. Consistent deculturalization efforts were made toward Native Americans by government agents establishing schools for Native Americans and by boarding schools. By controlling the content and context in which education took place, U. S. educators suffocated Native American Culture and resuscitated it with the European mores. The multiple cultures of Americans from African descent were hollowed through denial of education, physical intimidation, segregation, and inferior facilities. Persistent attempts to correct the status quo by the NAACP, Martin Luther King Jr. , and several other organizations and individuals have moved the U. S. government to redress some inequities in the educational system. Mexican Americans were also placed in English-only schools or no school at all. During the twentieth century, Puerto Rican students faced the same threats of deculturalization as did Asian Americans in nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Legislation in the latter part of the twentieth century has also redressed some inequities in educational opportunities for these groups while, the No Child Left Behind Act has reduced some of the multicultural gains in education which disappoints many in the teaching profession. References Nieto, Sonia and Bode, Patty (2008). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education. Boston. Pearson Education Inc. Spring, Joel (2010). Deculturalization and the struggle for equality. New York. McGraw-Hill.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Anti-trust Law Case Study

Anti-trust Law Case Study Landmark: Antitrust Case Study Question 1: Write a 100- word abstract of the case, including the date of the case The essay gives a brief analysis and review of a case in which the government of the United States led to the U.S. Supreme Court. This is the defense of the claim appeal 384 U.S. competition 270 presented by the U.S. government against VON Grocery Co. (Von) in 1966 in the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of California No. 303. Duration was March 22, 1966 and the delivery of a verdict was the May 31, 1966. It was in favor of the defendant. This just reminded demand, government regulators were ignoring situations that occur within its jurisdiction. It was despite his knowledge of the changing developments in market structures that controlled processes. Government regulators failed to switch to a relaxed mood compared to previous legislative procedures necessary reacted to the threats and opportunities of his time. As a result, this led to the prevention of unfair trade practices or disposal of similar economic activities of small-scale business. Key words: VONS GROCERY CO, 384 U.S. 270, Shopping Bag Food Stores and 7 of the Clayton Act. Question 2: Describe the provision of the US Antirust Law invoked to judge the presence of anti-competitive behavior or potential of for moving the industry in that direction. The 1960 merger of Von Grocery Company with competitor Shopping Bag Food Stores (Shopping Bag) whose locations are in Los Angeles, California violated Section 7 of the Clayton Act (n. P Thomson Reuter). Its amendment in 1950 regulates the reasonable termination through the prohibition of mergers and acquisitions, which decreased competition. Even after a new amendment in 1980, remains the main reference point for antitrust law mergers that threatened the United States (Fox Fox). Question 3: Describe the basis for the ruling and action that pertain to all OR some of the following factors: The extent and trend in competition and expected in the future: Industry Structure and trend and projection for the future [based on the past, mostly]; CR4, CR8 and HHI, specially in cases of mergers. The claim of the United States had other modifications as support for their arguments. They were the 1950 amendment to Section 7 of the Celler-Kefauver and Congress sought to preserve competition for small businesses. Was also intended to help companies focus. The court was the agent that was against large companies that use concentrations in markets with increasing centralization of business. He succeeded in divesting after United States v. Philadelphia National. . Bank, 374 U.S. 321 Celler-Kefauver 362 Anti-Merger Act 1950 as amended provides relevant information: That no company engaged in commerce shall acquire all or part of the assets of another company also engaged in commerce, where in any line of commerce in any part of the country, the effect of such acquisition may be substantially to lessen competition or tend to create a monopoly. Question 4: Describe the â€Å"conduct† in question that has been considered â€Å"anticompetitive:†Determine if the defendant had used an anticompetitive Price Strategy and explain how. Likewise, describe any Non-price Strategies the defendant had used and describe how. In investing 233 F. Supp. 976 Richard A. Posner was counsel for the United States. Your tips help were Attorney General Marshall, Assistant Attorney General Turner, Robert B. Hummel, James J. Coyle and John F. Hughes. The defense attorney was William W. Alsup. Your tips help Warren M. Christopher and were William W. Vaughn. As an interested party, the National Association of Retail Grocers of the United States Attorney Bison was Henry J., Jr., as amicus curiae, urging affirmance. MR. JUSTICE BLACK was the judge in the case and give judgment. The date of the original application was March 25, 1960. March 28, 1960, the District Court did not grant the motion of the Government for a restraining order against Von Grocery Company. The latter wanted to acquire tangible capital around the Shopping Bag Food Stores, and the ruling was that not violate the terms of demand. It was a backdoor way of recognizing the merger and showing favoritism to the accused prior to final judgment. The main argument of the defense was that a company was protecting the other from the state of collapse. They merged to protect a stronger competitor. 374 U.S. 321, 362 was the claim that prohibiting such mergers. There were bank loans may have had access and filing for bankruptcy as a financial coverage. The company achieved this when it was about to collapse. He managed to regroup with the help of government agencies and private financial consultants. Question 5: Describe the effect of the defendant’s â€Å"conduct† on other firms (or the main rival) in the industry. Von was the third largest grocery market in the retail area Los Angeles on sales while the shopping bag of food was number six in 1958. Their 1960 joint sales rose 7.5% an annual output of two and a half million. Your Los Angeles market seemed too small part of their market to the government to fight. However, if the top ten companies had double combined, their total market share could have been about a third of the retail market of Los Angeles. To be fair to these stores, which had begun as the outgoing neighborhood store many Americans of his generation knew. Ten of the previous twelve years to the merger, the number of stores has increased to a little more than twice their number. The other positive numbers include increased sales and market share. Its merger positioned the number two supermarket chains in Los Angeles. Meanwhile, the discovery of individual owners tennis shops in Los Angeles dropped by nearly two-fifths. In 1963, the numbers continued to decline. The government witnesses lacked a thorough analysis of the facts and figures that the defense had in its possession. For example, from 1949 until 1958, nine of the top 20 competitors chains came into possession of 126 stores smaller rivals. An important defense witness gave details of previous acquisitions and mergers from 1954 to 1961. Apparently they were in the top 10 stores in Los Angeles. You might consider this as an ordinary person and discriminatory legal action. They should also have ground The nine competitors target rivals for smaller parties to legal action. However, the union of the two powers of financial market was a threat to government control in the area of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¹Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¹Los Angeles. The government reported data in its reply, the Federal Trade Commission prepared. Question 6: Describe the initial legal action taken against or in-favor of the defendant. The initial legal action taken against the defendant is that the US government accused Von’s Grocery Company of violating Section 7 of the Clayton Act because it was an attempting to create a monopoly. The company appealed and the District Court ruled in its favour. Also, it is important to mention that the government made accusations against the company because it wanted to purchase a smaller competitor in the retail grocery market that was called Shopping Bag Food Stores. Question 7: Describe any subsequent legal action in the case (such as the Supreme Court), if any. Once the case was resolved there was no subsequent action taken. The decision on the case was repealed by the District Court and it was possible for Von’s Grocery Company to merge with, and subsequently absorb, Shopping Bag Food Stores. Question 8: Carefully describe how the model of Structure-Conduct-Performance has been applied in the case under consideration. [The weight for this question is 40% of the grade.] The history of the struggle against mergers in the United States began in 1890. At that time, Congress passed the Sherman Act to prevent monopolies. Distrust of Americans back to the founding of the country. Unfortunately, did not protect the smaller companies businessman larger monopolistic pressures. In 1897, the Court ruled that the U.S. government against Trans-Missouri Freight Assn., 166 U.S. 290, 323. In [384 U.S. 270, 275], the Sherman Act did not protect the small businessman. Congressional approval in 1914, 7 of the Clayton Act allowed the merger of corporations through the purchase of shares of its competitors. By contrast, business people find a loophole and bought his opponents assets. A blow to the fight against the Clayton Act device came with the endorsement of Judge Brandeis, Taft chief justice and judges Holmes and Stone in 1926. As a result, there was a reduction in the number of large companies. The action was in 1950 Congress adopted the Celler-Kefauver Anti-Merger Act. Representative Celler and Senator Kefauver main reference was 384 U.S. lawmakers 270, 276 for the period 1940-1947. They used the Brown Shoe Co. v United States, 370 U.S. 294, 315 to argue their points. They and other members of Congress had the same concerns. In contrast, 7 of the Clayton Act had stamps in their lagoon and extending its coverage using 384 U.S. 270, 277. Evacuation This involved mergers between competitors and stop all instances of mergers. The U.S. v National Philadelphia. Banking, led to Amendment 7 to cancel the anti-competitive tendencies. 384 U.S. 270, 279 is another case of reference that allowed the passage of the Celler-Kefauver Act. In United States v. El Paso Gas Co., 376 U.S. 651, 662 defendants El Paso Gas Co. were notified of antitrust charges and declined to postpone divestment from the beginning. Moreover, these two other similar cases of United States v. du Pont Co., 366 U.S. 316; United States v. Alcoa, 377 U.S. 271, 281 are pre-trial demand 384 U.S. 270, 303 which was subjected to analysis. Decisions of typos with the figures presented in court said the government ran a presentation to meet with any person or body quirks. The government regulator requires constant awareness of the impact of legislative developments and industry trends and ongoing. There is the need for external consultants to give their objective on huge demands especially in unknown actions reviews. In such cases, the now useless but necessary demand requires more in-depth research, planning, analysis and the reality of how to fight cases misunderstood use laws. This implies compulsory receive expert help to train the executors. This paper has emphasized that the demands of the past are benchmarks for current and future cases and judgments. Upon focusing on how the SCP paradigm was applied in the case being considered, the first thing to note is that during the 1950s and 1960s, the grocery retail industry was characterized by ownership concentration. In other words, fewer and fewer owners started to own more and more stores (which they would go and absorb from smaller competitors). The structure and conduct of the market was going in the direction of fewer competitors of larger sizes. In the particular case of Von’s Grocery Company, it may be seen that its sales, when combined with the sales of Shopping Bag Food Stores, represented 7.5% of the total dollar amount of retail groceries sold per year in Los Angeles. Combining this fact by the fact that between the late 1940s and the late 1950s both businesses involved with the merger had doubled in size (measured by the amount of retail stores owned by each), and that the trend was going in the direction of larger (and fewer) competitors, it was decided that there wa s no violation of Section 7 of the Clayton Act. In sum, it was decided that there was no attempt of creating a monopoly, but rather a strategic decision imposed by the market. Works Cited Fox, Byron E. Fox, Eleanor M. Chapter Summary, ABSTRACT TEXT:. LexisNexis Group. 2014. . Web. 21 June 2014. Thomson Reuters. U.S. Supreme Court. Thomson Reuters, 2014.>. Web. 20 June 2014.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Descartes :: essays research papers

Foundation   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In Descartes Meditation VI Of the existence of material things, and of the real distinction between the real soul and body of man, he explains he reasoning for believing that the mind is better known than any body. Descartes states his reasoning through various assumptions that he has made in his search for knowledge. Descartes is a philosopher, who through thinking comes to these conclusions.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the reading of Descartes he interprets his understanding of how and why the mind is better known than the body. He states that, â€Å"Myself in my entirety in as much as I am formed of body and soul (mind) taught by nature, sun, stars, and sky. Descartes realized that he could learn things from his body. Things like pain if he touches a flame or pleasure if he drinks a cup of wine. With senses Descartes could see textures and beautiful landscapes. This made Descartes realize that from this generalization that he has made, what he learns from his body does not exceed what he already knows in his mind. I think Descartes point is well made in his quote above. I come to understand this though, through the fact that the minds common sense is what tells me I should not touch a flame, because of the pain it will bring me.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Through Descartes studies of himself, he also came to the conclusion that, â€Å"†¦Mind alone, not mind and body in conjunction, is a requisite to a knowledge of the truth in regard to such things.†(376) He explains this premise with the analogy, â€Å"†¦Although stars make no larger an impression on my eye than the flame of a little candle there is yet in me no real or positive propensity impelling me to believe that it is not greater than the flame; but I have judged it to be from my earliest years, without any rational foundation.† This analogy interprets that, just because there is no direct effect upon his the body or physical senses it does not mean that nothing exists. The mind is more important to think and realize the possibilities even though his body cannot sense them. So even though the flame looks the same size as the star his mind know it in fact is not. I can only understand so much of this statement by Descartes. I understan d that that his mind can differentiate the star from the star, but this is not preconceived knowledge given to him at birth.

Racial Inequality in America in 1998

Racial Inequality in America in 1998 Racial inequality in the United States is still a contentious issue. The demographic population of ...