Saturday, August 31, 2019
Empire and the Pope Renaissance is the name traditionally bestowed upon the remarkable outpouring of intellectual and artistic energy and talent that accompanied the transition of Europe from the middle ages to the modern epoch. The term is extended to politics and economics as well. The Renaissance was one of the most significant movements in European history, because it effected a change in man's attitude towards the problem of human existence. However, historians have long debated what is meant by the term Ã¢â¬ËRenaissance'.For some it is a distinctive period, for others a momentous event and for a third group a definable movement of ideas and beliefs. Each choice has its problem and detractors. The Dutch historian Johan Hugging wrote. Ã¢â¬ËAt the sound of the word Ã¢â¬ËRenaissance' the dreamer of past beauty sees purple and gold'. More exactly he or she sees in the minds eye Botulism's Birth of Venus, Michelangelo David, Leonardo Monomials, Erasmus, the Chateaux of the Loir e and Faerie Queen, all rolled into one, into a composite picture of a golden age of creativity and culture.Jacob Bureaucrat in his famous Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860) defined the period in terms of two concepts, individualism and modernity. He wrote, Ã¢â¬ËIn the Middle Ages human consciousness Ã¢â¬ ¦ Lay dreaming or half awake beneath a common veilÃ¢â¬ ¦ Man was conscious of himself only as a member of a race, people, party, family or corporation Ã¢â¬â only through some general category. In Renaissance Italy, however, the veil first melted into thin airÃ¢â¬ ¦ An became a spiritual individual and recognized himself as such, Renaissance meant modernity. It began in Italy and at a later stage spread to the rest of Europe. Peter Burke comments that the grand edifice created by Bureaucrat and his contemporaries has not stood the test of time. It has been undermined by the researchers Ã¢â¬â the medievalists in particular. They argue that Ã¢â¬â in the firs t place the Ã¢â¬ËRenaissance men' were really rather medieval. They were more traditional in their behavior assumptions and ideals than we tend to think.Two of the most famous books written in 6th century Italy, the Ã¢â¬ËCourtier' and the Ã¢â¬ËPrince', have turned out to be closer to the Middle Ages than they appear. Secondly, the medievalists have accumulated arguments to the effect that the Renaissance was not such a singular event as Bureaucrat and his contemporaries once thought and the term should really be used n the plural. There were famous Ã¢â¬ËRenaissance' n the Middle Ages, notably on the 12th Century and in the age of Charlemagne.Can we therefore assume there was no Renaissance at all? Here Peter Burke comes to our rescue. He says, Ã¢â¬Ë if we describe the Renaissance in purple and gold, as an isolated cultural miracle or as the sudden emergence of modernity, my own answer would be Ã¢â¬Ëno'. If however, the word is used without prejudice to the achievements o f the Middle Ages, or those of the world beyond Europe, to refer to a particular cluster of changes in western culture, then it ay be regarded as an organizing concept which still has its uses. Ã¢â¬Ë J. M.Thompson has very succinctly summed up what is meant by the Renaissance. Ã¢â¬ËLet the word be freedom. Freedom from the tyranny Ã¢â¬â none the less cramping because so easily borne Ã¢â¬â of the medieval world order. Freedom of thought from Aristotle as interpreted by Aquinas. Freedom in history from the parochialism and credulity of the monastic chronicler. Freedom in art, from the illustrated manuscript and the stained glass window. Freedom of literature from the censorship of the Church. In politics freedom from feudalism: in religion from traditionalism.With a new universe in the sky, a new world across the sea and anew learning on his study shelf, the 16th century student might well feel that the old age was passing away and that the dawn off new age was at hand. Ã¢â ¬Ë SOCIAL ROOTS The Renaissance was actually not so much a particular movement as a concrete expression of changing mentalities in a new world. A movement implies a definite period of activity with a precise beginning and end. The Renaissance had neither. It is however generally assumed to have started with the activities of the first humanist Francesco Patriarch as he is commonly known.The Renaissance flourished due to the patronage of the Popes, princes, cardinals and merchants. The 1 5th century Italy was rich enough to support an extravagant and self-indulgent merchant aristocracy. In the urban centre of Northern Italy which possessed a high degree of cultural self consciousness as well as economic buoyancy, urban identity and pride was reflected in the construction of the churches and public buildings and through the emergence of universities as centre of learning.As the Northern Italian urban society was based on individual property and private contract, the most important ed ucated roofs were those who dealt with commercial and industrial activities, I. E. , lawyers and notaries who had to attain mastery of Roman law and Latin (the language of the law courts) and who were able to quote from the Classical and the Christian authors as well as had developed an interest in the language literature, institutes and customs of antiquity. Patriarch and Vacation are pointed out as the pioneers of the Renaissance, the precursors or pre-humanists were all either lawyers or notaries.Religion still occupied an important place and the Pietas, Madonna's, Crucifixion and he innumerable saints portrayed in Renaissance art, show that the traditional faith of most artists remained Christianity. Renaissance society was essentially aristocratic. It offered economic, intellectual and political opportunities to only a small number. But it did not possess the usually universally accepted standard of nobility. The Commercial Revolution of the high Middle Ages and the social chan ges connected with it had already undermined the aristocracy of blood.The Great Depression of the mid 14th century and the stagnation which followed, shook the financial security of the aristocracy of wealth. The aristocratic structure of the society during the Renaissance period persisted and was not submerged by the growth of the merchant class. The Renaissance witnessed as much penetration of the ideas and manners of the nobility into the ethos of the bourgeoisie as the other way round. Noble births were desired but it was the sophisticated merchants of Florence and Venice who helped to promote civility, and to widen the horizons of the aristocratic life.Now for a soldier, statesman, priest or a merchant to be known as a gentleman, a knowledge of the ancient classics and an appreciation of art, literature, music and of conversation ere necessary. The Renaissance was the work of hundreds of gifted men living in scores of cities like Vaccine, Riming, Ferreira, Robin, Mantra and Pra m. But it was the strongest in the four cities Ã¢â¬â Florence, Milan, Rome and Venice. Florence cradled the Renaissance and produced a remarkable number of gifted artists while Rome and Milan patronized these artists.The Renaissance reached Venice late but stayed here longer. The Renaissance enriched artistic influence spread all over Europe. One of the reasons as to why the Renaissance was Italian in origin was the continuous reminder of her read past provided by the ruins of temples and villas especially in the city of Rome. From the 1 5th century a new appreciation of these classical ruins appeared and the Renaissance Popes ordered their preservation and encouraged their excavation. Pope and princes competed with each other in making collection of ancient objects.The interest in Greek thought and literature, among those who discovered and collected ancient manuscripts, was also stimulated by contacts with the Byzantine Empire through Venetian and Genomes traders. The princes a nd republics of the Renaissance lived in dangerous and unsafe times but they desired fame, which could be expressed in something more concrete and permanent than war, such as buildings, arts, pageants and patronage. They all tried to immortality their greatness by constructing buildings and encouraging painting and sculpture.Leonardo dad Vinci sought the patronage of Cesar Boring as well as Spoors, Raphael began his career in war ravaged Peruvian, Ladino's frescoes, Liberties churches and Vitiation's influence in education, all brought fame to Mantra. Social circumstances were also very favorable to the artists and craftsman. There was a deep rooted tradition of early Christian Europe that buildings were a part of Christian life. So the wealthy ordered their parish churches and founded and patronized monasteries, nunneries and cathedrals. The Popes were the foremost in this field.It was also a custom for the princes to adorn their palaces, and so provide an impetus to the crafts of metal work, jewelry, tapestries and frescoes. Since the competitive state system of the Renaissance Italy was obsessed not only with power and war but also with the furtherance of art, Venice and Florence, the two republics were Jealous of their menus. Money and social energy was poured into art. In the competition of artists was added the competition for artists. Now merchant princes and despots were vying for the service of the great architects, sculptors, painters and scholars.Many of the rulers of the smaller states cultivated a princely style of generosity to arts and magnificence in order to popularize their rule. The patrons spent their fortunes in ways that would benefit the community. The building of chapels and the commissioning of many public works of art were a result of a new conception of wealth spent for civil purposes. New modes of religious thought and feeling underlay new styles in architecture, sculpture and painting. With patronage becoming competitive, the arts became more costly.Renaissance society was meant for rich men, rich cities and rich Popes. To maintain the expenses of the Renaissance art, culture and society, an active and profitable commerce was essential. Venice, Florence, Milan and Rome were full of wealthy men who patronized the Renaissance achievements and nurtured genius. Among the Italians, the Florentine especially revered the wisdom, grace, philosophy and literature of the antiquity. By 1400 there ere hundreds of merchants of Italy who could afford to patronize art when earlier it was only the prerogative of the aristocracy.In Florence, Milan, Rome and Venice, the practice and patronage of art had become a civic virtue. Ferreira, Bologna and Robin also had talents. Though the cities of the papal states was war torn because the Pope was in Avignon, and both trade and population had declined there, yet artistic life did flourish in Peruvian (Perusing frescos, Bastion's and Repeal's paintings). Constant fighting turned the Renaissance historians and political philosophies into supporters f tyranny, since it ensured peace and order, as in the case of Machiavelli.Renaissance statecraft is typified by a single man Ã¢â¬â Nicola Machiavelli Ã¢â¬â who belonged to Florence. He was highly influenced by the constant warfare of those times and also by the fact that Florence continued to be a republic in spite of the ambitions of the Duke of Milan. By resisting him, the Florentine saved the liberty of both Florence and Italy. The outcome of the crisis made Florence the centre of new humanism, a new appreciation of political liberty and civic virtue and a new attitude towards man's place in society.It was this attitude that ensured the independence of the major Italian states and consequently the vigor and diversity of Italian artistic and cultural development which characterized the Renaissance. Trade, high finance, a large and a partially urbanize population, quickening industry and the absence of a deepl y rooted, all-powerful political structure, all helped the future development of Renaissance Italy. Renaissance was a movement of cities where a rich urban class, free from the pressures of feudalism flourished. The Italian city-state formed a perfect domicile for the Renaissance art and literature.
A critical analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Story Of An HourÃ¢â¬ , in my opinion, is a good piece of literature. It is well written, clearly written, entertaining, and it brings a bit of a challenge to the reader. Starting with the title, Chopin described part of the setting. We already know that everything that happens during this little drama, happens within an hour. This title brought curiosity upon me because I did not realize that many things that could affect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life could take place in an hour. For example, the recent tragedy in America, within one hour much had happened in the borders of the United States and ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of title brought that to my attention, within an hour much could happen that could completely change someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The way the story is written is very straightforward. The author tells you exactly what is happening but still leaves enough room for your imagination to fill in the blanks. For example, when Chopin describes LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s room with Ã¢â¬Å"the open window, a comfortable, roomy armchairÃ¢â¬ (page 378), and then goes on to describe what Louise sees outside, she tells us that our protagonist isnÃ¢â¬â¢t living a bad life monetarily. Louise has a nice comfortable chair in her bedroom where she has a nice view of a square with trees and people. The way Chopin describes the weather follows the same suit. Ã¢â¬Å"There were patches of blue sky showing here and there through the cloudsÃ¢â¬ Ã ¦in the west facing her windowÃ¢â¬ (page 378). The author tells you what to imagine but there is still room for you to add, for example, the sun shining through the clouds and warmly hitting her face, among other things. The language used was also good. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the usual complicated Shakespearean English, it was, if you will, a more updated version of it. Because she used Modern English, it was easier to follow and understand, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to stop and figure out what a certain word meant. At the same time, it is not to say that the piece was poorly written. In many instants as I read it I noticed the way it flowed so well and how beautiful it sounded. The description Chopin gives of Louise sitting on the chairÃ describes it best. Ã¢â¬Å"She sat with her head thrown back upon the cushion of the chair, quite motionless, except when a sob came up into her throat and shook her, as a child who has cried itself to sleep continues to sob in its dreams.Ã¢â¬ (Page 378). Simple, yet deep. Throughout the whole story I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really have an urge to stop reading it. Chopin kept me there reading along because I was curious to know more about how Louise felt and if she was going to be ok since it was mentioned that she had heart problems. The story was very entertaining although short. I believe that even if Chopin had dragged on a little more I still wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve read it right through. Louise showed some strange signs upon receiving the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. It can even be said that Chopin intended for the audience to think that Louise might have had something to do with her husband BrentlyÃ¢â¬â¢s death. And Richards might have been involved too. As the news were received at the newspaper office, Richards was already there waiting for it and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t leave until a second telegram had been sent confirming the death of his friend. The fact that she Ã¢â¬Å"wept at onceÃ¢â¬ (Page 378) also shows some kind of possible involvement, perhaps a fake cry scene was put here just so her sister would see that she was upset about her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. It is mentioned that she while sitting on her chair she sank Ã¢â¬Å"pressed down by a physical exhaustion that haunted her body and seemed to reach into her soul.Ã¢â¬ (Page 378). That to me sounds a bit like guilt, the use of the work Ã¢â¬Å"hauntedÃ¢â¬ shows that this is a negative feeling. Once Chopin starts to describe Louise, Ã¢â¬Å"She was young, with a fair face, whose lines bespoken repression and even a certain strength.Ã¢â¬ (Page 378), that could be describing the repression that she felt because of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards her. Ã¢â¬Å"It was not a glance of reflection, but rather indicated a suspension of intelligent thought.Ã¢â¬ (Page 378), this sentence tells me that she hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been logically thinking anymore, it also helps to show that perhaps she did have some kind of involvement on her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death, not being able to cognitively solve her problems with him. She is waiting for a feeling, maybe it is guilt from what she has done and when it says that she would fight this feeling back it is because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to feel guilty. And later on this feeling is calledÃ a monstrous joy. The cries of freedom also help my observations come true, she had a reason to do it, she wanted to be free of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s ways. Once her husband opens the door, she screams and has a heart attack, she was not expecting to see him ever again, she was filled w joy until the moment she saw him alive. Perhaps she is guilty of trying to kill her husband. The confusing challenging part comes when Richards tries to get in the way of LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s sight so she is not able to see Brently. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand it, what does it mean? Did Richards maybe tell Brently to do something else rather than take this train trip but did not tell him that the train Ã¢â¬Å"accidentÃ¢â¬ was to occur? Maybe it is so and he was trying to not allow Louise to see Brently because Richards and Louise had planned it all and he backed out on it. Maybe LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s intention was to be with Richards after her husband died. After reading the story several times this is my interpretation. It is a very good story that could have many meanings, this being one of them. Evil, or LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to kill her husband, failed once again because of Good, or Richards strong friendship with Brently. Works Cited Chopin, Kate. Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ The Norton Introduction to Literature. New York: Norton, 1998. 377-379.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The five-sector circular flow model represents an open economy like AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s, and demonstrates the important relationships between the different sectors in the Australian market economy. It is the last circular flow model because it does not have any assumptions that need to be left out such as governments and trade. The five parts of the model: households, firms, finance, Government and overseas sectors work collectively to form the economy. The inter-relationships between these sectors create market economic conditions that affect every Australian. The model of the economy demonstrates that it literally works as a flow or a cycle. It can the be further defined to include two flows, one, a flow of goods and services and the other, a flow of money. The flow diagram demonstrates that when one sector is at risk it puts economic market conditions in jeopardy because they are all reliant upon one another. The Australian Economy is open, which is its open to flows of goods, services and capital from overseas using different currencies (with fixed exchange rates). In the open economy income is used for consumption, savings, tax or spent on imports. The new feature in the five-sector model is the overseas sector that includes imports and exports Ã¢â¬â Trade. The same principles apply to this model as the imports are represented as spending, however the money goes out of the economy. Money spent on imports by households or firms reduce income spent in the economy and are therefore classified as Ã¢â¬ËleakagesÃ¢â¬â¢ from the model. Imports can be categorised as the consumption of goods and services from the rest of the World and they reduce income, expenditure, output and employment from the Australian market economy. Importing goods mean that fewer Australian resources are utilised and production falls. Thus, the level of income decreases and the flow of money becomes smaller. Eventually however the flow would return to equilibrium but at a lesser rate and the circular flow would have contracted. Furthermore, exports of goods and services generate income for exporters from overseas households or firms who pay for these exports. An Australian export is essentially a product or service that is produced here and sold toÃ another country generating income for Australian businesses. Exports are therefore a form of injection of income into the circular flow without using Australian resources to produce them. With both imports and exports taking place as the new addition to the five-sector economy the circular flow is again complete. All income is consumed, saved, taxed and now can be used to purchase imports. The economy is in equilibrium when income equals output equals expenditure or simply, Injections equal Leakages. The open economy will be in equilibrium when savings plus taxation plus imports equals investment plus Government spending plus exports. However, this does not mean that savings has to equal investment only that the total of S plus T plus M equals the total of I plus G plus X. However equilibrium is not necessarily a desirable or non-desirable thing. Being at equilibrium is fine or at the point where savings, tax and imports are less than investments, Government spending and exports where this will cause a boom or expansion in economic activity however, being the opposite of this will cause a recession or contraction in economic activity. On a chart this is represented when the supply and demand curves intersect at the point where supply and demand are equal. The price at which the number of products that businesses are willing to supply equals the amount of products that consumers are willing to buy at a specific point in time. Governments can stimulate or contract economic activity depending on the current state of the economy, world issues (including other economies around the world) and political matters. When the economy is at equilibrium they can choose to stimulate the economy by being at a point of budget deficit, which would increase spending, they can also do this by lowering taxes. If they want to reduce economic activity they can increase taxes, which may create political instability at the same time, or they can generate a point of budget surplus which would slow spending. Governments only have so much impact on the economy using this method. To have more influence and impact they produce some goods their self, they do this by owning large companies or shares in them such as Telstra and Australia Post which have a large amount of economic influence. Not only do these companies have a largeÃ amount of monetary influence every Australian relies on atleast one of their companies/services everyday . The circular flow diagram can be used to analyse the position of the Australian economy. To do this you must first understand how the diagram works. The diagram flows in a cycle. Look at a point on the diagram and follow the arrows to see where it has come from and where it can go. Research economic current economic conditions in Australia and then see what affect this can have overall by looking at the sectors flowing to and away from it. Problems have an overall effect on every part of the circular flow model however, because if one thing goes wrong then it effects everything throughout the whole cycle until it returns to where it began. The five sector circular flow model is very useful is helping to easily understand the way an open economy such as Australia works. It is a complete model including all possible sectors leaving nothing to assume. On a more careful analysis it even becomes possible to workout ways of stimulating and suppressing the economy using assumptions and simple equations. This model is especially helpful to students seeking an easy way to understand the way an open economy functions and the different affect certain problems can bring about.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
The Saint Michael Medal - Essay Example A visual projection of the Catholic's designed of the image of Archangel Michael holding a sword upright pointing toward to the beast on his feet that is being suggestive of its losing from Michael's force is what is being engraved uniformly to the medal. In Catholic tradition that almost every personality in the Scriptures (some are not) or entities are being sanctified by their administration, Archangel Michael was hailed as saint by the Catholic Church. It has been ordained to their conviction that "Saint Michael" will be the patron of the following (Catholic-Online 2008): Such list of believed to be the criteria that encompass the sainthood of Archangel Michael given by the Catholic Church as he has been honored and invoked as patron and protector from the time of the Apostles as this church claimed. In addition to this, he was also being regarded by the Catholic officials as patron of the dying people and those being tempted (Catholic-Online 2008). An example is the design "Sterling Michael 'Shield' Medal" that is made of sterling silver. The Catholic company website is selling this piece which they regarded as a sacred piece for them for $44.00.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
DYNAMICS OF THE ARAB- ISREALI CONFLICT - Essay Example For example, Waltz (9) explains that human behavior is among the top causes of war. The author noted that wars occur because of human stupidity and selfishness. Elimination of wars is simple only after knowing the causes. For example, the article identifies human behavior as among the primary causes of war. As a result of that, elimination of war can be done by dealing with the behavior of men. This can be done through education or having the right policies. The article presents one narrative of Beverly Nicholas, who pointed out that making Norman Angell as an educational dictator would eliminate all the wars. Based on this narrative, it is clear that wars are closely related to the behavior of a person that is determined by his or her knowledge. It is not easy to explain to some individuals that war is human related because some do not agree. As noted from the article, some individuals think that wars cannot be controlled because they occur naturally. Zionist identity emerged as a result of various treatments of Jewish the land in which both Israel and Palestine claims. Zionism is viewed as an ideology that calls all the Jews to gather together in a single homeland. Arab aggression towards the Israelites is the cause of the formation of Zionist identity. According to Rogan and Shlaim (79), the Israelites had to confront the Arabs in 1948. Arabs thought that the Jews should be faced out from the map, and this led to Arab-Israel conflict in 1948. Jews emerged as the winners because of various reasons cited by the authors. The failure of Arabs during the Israel-Arab conflict is attributed to the division that existed between the coalitions of Arabs. Additionally, Arabs engaged the Israelites without considering the main aim of the war. The Authors also pointed out the failure by the Arabs to coordinate the military and diplomatic efforts as among the top contributors of their failure. Studies show that Palestine identity despite formation
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Art of Postmodernism - Essay Example The essay "Art of Postmodernism" discusses art in the era of postmodernism. It is known that the tendencies that dominate in society reflect in the artwork of the individuals in this era, so it is not supprising that this all of a sudden break from tradition caused a new artistic style to appear. Today we call this style Modernism. It is evident that in the art of this period there was a mass reduction in works that were produced on commission. The works were instead produced for the benefit of the individual artist for him/herself or for some kind of higher purpose. Once modernism arrived, artists started looking for a new kind of truth Ã¢â¬â the truth that was backed up by science, industry and reality. The artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of the world had drastically changed. While in the past the purpose and the characteristics of real art were universal and imperturbable. At that time various groups of artists started emerging, each with their own particular vision of art as well a s truth. For example, take Cubists such as Braque and Picasso who used the principles of geometry to break down real three-dimensional objects in order to find their true forms. A universally accepted genius Salvador Dali and his counterparts, Surrealists, directed all their efforts and talent to various subconscious experiments that opened a door to truth and real art for them. Matisse used color as his vehicle, while Cezanne was consumed by light and form. Balla and Boccioni got fully absorbed by completing Futurist manifestos.
Monday, August 26, 2019
African American studies - Essay Example The evolution of slavery aided in the development of a racist ideology that promoted the belief that blacks are inferior to whites, a myth that persisted long after slavery was abolished, and one that is deeply embedded within our national discourse. Cultural racism, such as this, fosters a Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"theyÃ¢â¬ mentality, a state of mind that is maintained through the socialization of new generations. The abolition of slavery did not mean that blacks were accepted by the dominant white society. The racist ideology that emerged out of the slavery system continued to influence how whites perceived blacks. Wilson (1973) explains Ã¢â¬Å"Whites rejected slavery as an acceptable institution in the North but were unwilling to endorse the view that blacks should receive social, economic and political equalityÃ¢â¬ , exemplifying how the negative belief systems of the plantations were deeply engrained in American culture after two hundred years of slavery. Unable to accept blacks as equals to themselves, white Americans relied increasingly upon the system of segregation, as a means to communicate the message.Segregation between blacks and whites was reinforced by a system of racial etiquette.The 1896 Supreme Court Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ decision failed to clearly define equality, and as a result, the separation of facilities for blacks and whites created a need to clarify the social positions of the dominant white class. ... Lynching was regularly employed as a means to enforce the status quo, with over thirty-six hundred cases recorded between 1884 and 1914. Relations between blacks and whites became increasingly violent in character during the World War I era in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s history. Black workers were competing openly with whites for jobs and housing, causing tensions to rise between the two groups. Having been denied political participation and strictly segregated in nearly all areas of their social lives, blacks found that their socioeconomic opportunities were severely limited. Race riots occurred in several American cities and discontent among the black population continued to rise. These hostile conditions continued into the World War II period, when more jobs became available to black workers. In addition to the economic opportunities provided by WWII, the conditions under which it was fought allowed Americans to re-examine their own racist logic. The racist ideology practiced at home was in consistent with the ideals they fought for in the war against Nazi Germany, a racist regime. Also, according to Marger (1991) racist policies at home were viewed [Student 3] as an Ã¢â¬Å"international liabilityÃ¢â¬ (235) when dealing with non-white nations. These changes in the national racial attitude, along with the 1954 Supreme Court decision in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, helped push the advancement of black right civil rights. By the early 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, the system of segregation had been fully dismantled and white supremacist groups, such as the Klu Klux Klan, were no longer supported. The historical relations between blacks and whites will remain in the collective narrative for many generations. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Financial Ratio Analysis Report - Essay Example Analysis and interpretation of financial statements helps to evaluate the financial position and performance of an enterprise. "GM generated record third quarter automotive revenue of $43.1 billion. The company also achieved record global third quarter sales of 2.39 million cars and trucks, up four percent compared to the third quarter 2006, driven by exceptionally strong demand in emerging markets and improved performance in developed markets. GM also set a number of third quarter sales records around the globe, including a 22 percent increase in GMLAAM, 16 percent increase in the GMAP region, and 15 percent gain in GME." (GM Reports third quarter financial results, 2007). Analysis of Fundamental Ratios and Trends Ratio analysis is one of the important tools used to develop and interpret the financial statements of a business entity. Ratios measure the efficiency of operation of a business unit. Moreover, it also helps to analyze the financial strength or weakness of a business entity. The economic growth of the company is steady and stable. Like all other areas, the company is highly concentrating in the area of accounting and finance also. Similarly, a well defined plan is maintained by the company for protecting its quantum of stock:- Ge1. Maintain control over the entire amount of raw material obtained from the suppliers. 2. Utilize these quantum of raw materials for the production of goods with appropriate control and without making any wastage. 3. After making the delivery of finished goods, company tries to restore the balance of material/ inventory for further process. General Motors, a leading automobile manufacturer is following a systematic procedure for evaluating the financial performance of the entity. The major ratios are being calculated by GM for the analysis and interpretation of financial measurement are current ratio, quick ratio, asset turn over ratio, inventory turn over ratio etc. Therefore, the fundamental accounting ratios of GM are depicted below- Estimated Financial Ratios of General Motors a. . Liquidity Ratios: 1. Current Ratio = Current Assets = $1,000 Current Liabilities$310= 3.2 times. 2) Quick ratio= Quick Assets/ Current liabilities= $385/ $310 = 1.2 times. b) Leverage Ratios- 1) Debt ratio= Total Debt/ Total Assets=$1,064/$2,000= 53.2% 2) Debt to Net worth ratio= Total Debt/ Tangible Net Worth= $1,064/$2250= 47.29%. c) Operating ratios- 1) Net sales to Total Assets= Net Sales/ Total Assets=$3,000/$2,000= 1.5 times. 2) Gross profit ratio= Gross profit/ sales= 1,500/3,000= 50% d) Profitability ratios: 1) Basic Earning Power-(BEP) = EBIT/Total Assets= $283.8/ $2,000= 14.2% 2) Return On Total Assets (ROA) = Net income to stock holders/ Total Assets= $113.5/ $2,000= 5.7% 3) Price Earning Ratio (PE) = Price per share/ Earnings per share= $23/2.27= 10.1 times. 4) Market ratio= Common Equity/ Shares out standing= $896/ 50= $17.92 5) Return On Common Equity (ROE) = Net income to
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Ethical issues - Assignment Example On one hand, there is accountability, while there is confidentiality on the other. While the counsellorÃ¢â¬â¢s decision making on a case is limited by the premise of indirectly allowing positive decision making from a list of options availed to the client, it is not always easy. Counsellors are expected to induce positive thinking on the part of the client but when faced with stubborn hard-line stances by the clients, it becomes a presenting challenge in itself. The clientÃ¢â¬â¢s HIV status, the fiancÃ ©Ã¢â¬â¢s unawareness, the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s unwillingness to disclose to the fiancÃ © and the short duration of time to the alleged wedding appear to be major diagnostic problems of the case. This case falls in the category of relationships which definitely require the involvement of both partners at one point of the therapy. Since the client does not want the fiancÃ © to be involved in the details of the case poses the confidentiality issue of ethics. Whereas the details of the case are required to be positively progressing, the client wants to be fixated and progressing at the same time. Intrusive counsellor input is required in the manner of streamlined options with deep influential implications to the client. In other words, the counsellor needs to be assertive in case the stubbornness does not tone down. The only hard part in achieving this is the short duration time to the wedding, an action which changes the details of the case to a fundamentally difficult level (Corey, 2008). The counsellor client relationship is built on trust, which would be compromised if the counsellor informed his fiancÃ © of the risks involved in marrying the client. It is equally important that the counsellor understands the details of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s level of intimacy with his fiancÃ ©, because if they have been having a sexual relationship without protection, it could change the direction of the case (Sommers and Sommers, 2004). The counsellor must obtain all formation on the client to such a level
Friday, August 23, 2019
Trade and economic grwoth - Essay Example f a large number of developing nations, while the other group is of the view that trade had adversely affected economic growth of developing nations in particular. Over past few decades, extensive work has been done in this field by employing various statistical models and has been criticized on grounds of assumptions and validity. Therefore, purpose of this paper is to investigate the positive developments to economic growth arising from trade and the reasons for which these gains are often not realized. This paper first analyzes positive impacts to economic growth that could be directly attributed to trade. Then, the paper studies empirical evidence from a host of nations in order to verify whether or not these advantages are effectively realized. The aim is to see whether trade always accrues benefits for nations, thereby contributing to their economic growth. The existing literature points out that there a large number of benefits that can be derived from trade. Researchers have also differentiated between static and dynamic impacts, which could be achieved from trade between nations. Static gains are related to improvement in social welfare with fixed amount of input and dynamic gains from trade refer to change in the production structure due to adoption of new technology (Didier & Pinat, 2013). Firstly, trade helps in alleviation of poverty by increasing opportunities for commercial investments. It also helps in development of the private sector by boosting their sales from increased demand. Secondly, trade helps in enhancing competitiveness of developing countries by reducing the cost of inputs and adding value to their products. Rising trade brings in more investments for countries, which in turn improves infrastructure and quality of lives of individuals. Thirdly, trade has also been identified as a major vehicle for export diversif ication that can be achieved by developing countries. This enhances possibility of the developing countries to access new
Social Work Law - Essay Example Some of these problems include Ã¢â¬Å"unemployment, lack of job skill, inadequate housing, financial distress, serious illness or disability, substance abuse, unwanted pregnancy, marital problems or anti-social behavior among othersÃ¢â¬ (Kumar, 2004 p.1). The role of the social workers is to find effective and immediate solutions to these conflicts, which involve spousal or child abuse by offering consultation and counseling to their clients, and ensure that they undergo the services or treatments that ought to free them from complicated situations. In this given example, Jim is suffering from a mental disease of Ã¢â¬ËschizophreniaÃ¢â¬â¢ and has placed his family, especially the young children in unhealthy living conditions. JimÃ¢â¬â¢s medical condition is completely beyond his control and requires immediate attention. However, the drug dependency coupled with alcohol abuse and the service of penal punishment, are factors which are directly attributable to JimÃ¢â¬â¢s own m isconduct. ... Therefore, analytic and intuitive reason skills are best seen as continuum, not dichotomy. The centrality of and intuition needs to be acknowledged, but practice can be improved by developing professionalsÃ¢â¬â¢ analytic skillsÃ¢â¬ . It is a common knowledge that child-protection work is impressed with high level of emotions to ensure the well-being of the children and Ã¢â¬Å"arouse strong emotional responses in most adultsÃ¢â¬ (Munro, 2008, p. 12). Thus, social workers must be able to distinguish logical reasoning from emotions while investigating and working with the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s abusive families. In the case of Jim and his family, the social worker assigned to investigate must be able to thresh-out emotions from pure reason. Ã¢â¬Å"The ideal thinker is often portrayed as unemotional, remote person, absorbed in conscious cogitation and allowing no extraneous materials, such as feelings to interfere with their judgments and conclusions in deciding cases involving childre nÃ¢â¬â¢s rightsÃ¢â¬ (Munro, 2008, p. 12). The social worker assigned to monitor JimÃ¢â¬â¢s children should ensure that they are given the proper care, attention and guidance. According to Barker (2008), this is in consonance with governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s comprehensive program, Ã¢â¬ËEvery Child Matters of 2003Ã¢â¬â¢, which caters to Ã¢â¬Å"childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s services involving health, education, and social services, such as play work and a childÃ¢â¬â¢s yearly development. The program is geared toward five outcomes that all young children are entitled to: being healthy, staying safe, enjoying and achieving, making a positive contribution and achieving economic well-beingÃ¢â¬ . Pursuant to UK laws on the right of the children, the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Act of 1989, particularly, Section 31
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Natural Selection Essay Natural selection, according to Gulick, is the process through which heritable attributes that are beneficial or vital for survival and reproduction become a common thing in a population, whereas harmful characteristics become rare (p, 27). Natural selection occurs as a result of successful reproduction by persons who have advantageous traits (Darwin p, 39). This results in adoption of beneficial traits by the subsequent generation. Over a number of generations, adaptations take place through successful combination of small, random alterations in traits, as well as natural selection of the changes best suited for a particular environment. Genetic drift on the other hand results in production of random alterations in the number of characteristics in a population. Genetic drift occurs as a result of the role played by chance in determining whether an individual will live on and reproduce (Starr, Taggart, and Starr p, 415). The greatest controversies of biology are found in the unity and diversity of life. Naturalists have greatly employed Darwins explanation of unity or organic forms in order to resolve this controversy. Darwin applied the concept of evolution to every living thing including human beings, and claimed that all individuals, who belong to the same species, reveal some sort of variation between them (Goodenough, Wallace, and McGuire p, 9). According to Darwin, individuals who have advantageous features, for both reproduction and survival, pass them down through genetic inheritance from one generation to the other. Darwin teaches that variation, on which natural selection plays a role, is basically of small magnitude and that indefinite variation in all directions as well as the progressive accumulation of a particular series of variations, all resulting in the production of a novel species, occurs as a result of natural selection (Gulick, 28). In his theory of natural selection, Darwin stated that only those organisms that have the advantageous characteristics that suit a particular environmental condition are selected by nature. Natural selection, therefore, turns out to be a vital aspect in the evolution process (Darwin p, 45). Unity and diversity of life comprises of the dual facets of life on earth. Natural selection gives an account of the relatedness among organisms in a population by revelation that different animal species are related through descent from a common ancestor (Gulick p, 25). Modern animals, including man, are believed to have originated from a common simple ancestor. However, as a result of increased complexity, modern species appear different from the ancestral species. Nevertheless, a remarkable evidence of unity of life is revealed by the similarities in the molecular structure of species. Modern molecular studies reveal biochemical similarities between different species. Comparison of DNA sequences between human beings and apes reveal a close genetic similarity. This reveals that these two species probably had a common ancestor (Starr, Taggart, and Starr p, 410). Natural selection also gives an account of the great diversity that is displayed by modern species. Organisms that have distinct traits that enable them to live in environmental niches not occupied by similar organisms, according to Starr, Taggart and Starr, possess a greater chance of surviving (p, 410). Over generations, species which originated from a common ancestor have diversified in addition to occupying more and more environmental niches in order to take advantage of unutilized resources. Modern species are a phase in the progression of evolution, and their diversity results in the development of a series of speciation as well as extinction. Diversity of life, according to Gulick, does not result in development of a completely new and unique organism, but rather in organisms that share certain morphological similarities (p, 27). Vestigial characteristics that have no specific role resemble functional ancestral characteristics, and as a result, organisms can be categorized using these similarities into a ladder of connected groups. Work cited: Darwin, Charles. Natural Selection: The Global Struggle for Existence, ISBN 1565430824: Lulu. com, 2008 Goodenough, Judith. Wallace, Robert. and McGuire, Betty. Human biology: personal, environmental, and social concerns, ISBN 0030012813: Saunders College Pub. , 1998 Gulick, John. Evolution, Racial and Habitual, Controlled by Segregation, ISBN 1115895672 BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009 Starr, Cecie. Taggart, Ralph. and Starr, Lisa. Biology: the unity and diversity of life, 10th edn, ISBN 0534388000: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2004
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Stages of Building Construction Building a project involves various stages including initial preparation of the clients brief, scheduling and research, specifications and construction development. Plans, designs and changes occur throughout a project, inevitably, therefore there must be a unified desire for communication, understanding and agreement. Design/Planning In order for a project to develop into an eventual success communication, understanding and agreement are essential. Comprehensive consultations concerning desires in terms of design, constructability and practicality are imperative. An insight into the clients personal requirements and expectations will also prove fundamental to sustain achievement. However clients are not always exact about all the characteristics of their requirements; professional teams therefore act as advisors. As opinions change plans will have to be altered consequently to accommodate the new needs (Ashworth 2005). Sufficient planning and designing must be undertaken before any sort of construction commences on any development. Planning consists of the early congregation of information and ideas before a detailed design and construction process is exemplified. During this period parties involved in the development should identify any particular requirements, discuss important issues, resolve any disparities if any and assign tasks amongst other requests. Before advanced designing and development can begin, planning authorities must consent to the proposed project after comprehensive assessment. In some cases warrants must be granted for building work to begin on a site, most contractors require this to demolish or build on a site (Civitelo 2007). As the size and/or scale of a project increases costs will ultimately also go up (Ashworth 2005), therefore the planning team will have to combine the design of the project with cost saving solutions. This may mean making sacrifices in terms of some materials used in the project; this will for example reduce costs and allow the funds to be transferred to building a project of larger magnitude as costs rise. For this reason the planning stage is extremely important as conclusions will have to be drawn as to how much space is actually required for the development, too little and the project could be considered a disaster, too much and it could prove wasteful. There are many standards and legislation in the construction industry; these are set up for the benefit of the client making use of the development. Other legislation on the other hand is aimed at protecting the environment and wildlife. The purpose of legislation is to provide a regulatory body to ensure the efficient build of safe places for work and handling. A forthright view held by many is that legislation and standards add to costs and are not munch benefit at all however these claims need to be carefully dissected. Legislative requirements are aimed at increasing safety and are approved by a professional body having conducted tests and analysis. Projects, however small, are affected by an immense set legislation; primarily because efficient development is profoundly reliant on safe places of work and the safe handling of construction material and plants. As a result of this projects will always consist of a large team including clients, engineers, architects, contractors, government and regulating bodies and labourers (Ashworth 2005). An addition to this team is lawyers. When plans are drawn up for a project the parties involved must agree to contracts containing clauses with regards the development in question. Content of the contract may include articles with contemplation to budget, time and materials amongst other clauses. These need to be carefully examined as they can prove to become the reason for the downfall of a failed project. During the design process planners and designers must outline the function and suitability of materials whilst taking into consideration economic and ecological consequences (Hinze 2010). Architects for example would be most involved in the design considerations of a project, however as some parts of a plan cannot be considered without first finding out about planning consent, because of this a reasonable amount of significant decisions cannot be considered. When designing a project plans submitted must take into account expenses as prices are relentlessly rising. Today, most projects involve an organization which is able to economically forecast costs of not only principal costs but also costs of control services. The establishment also find the most economical ways of ensuring that a development does not run over budget. Before plans are put forward a review must be taken on designs to ensure that the ideas can be implemented in terms of both construction techniques and materials. The aim of these reviews called Constructability Reviews is to minimize the number of changes at a later stage, reduce delays and rising costs (Palmer 2002). Construction Once construction is ready to begin, preliminary work needs to commence to allow initial works to be carried out, these include the clearing of the work site, a ground survey to asses the ground conditions, setting up of sanitary facilities, water/power supplies and offices and storage areas. Sufficient welfare amenities will need to be established on a construction site for use by workers throughout a development, this will need to be arranged by the project manager in advance. Provisions will include rest rooms, toilets, storage rooms, changing rooms and washrooms as well. (Hinze 2010) These facilities will be essential for the length of a project to evade disturbance to a project. In some circumstances however, the project manager may not require some facilities and will instead be able to make use of permanent services available on site. For example, the client may allow the construction team to use toilets already installed on site. This will therefore reduce costs which may have been incurred if the welfare facilities were required. When welfare amenities are required the project manager should aim to locate these in various locations and not a single area, this reason for this is that having them in one area may prove to be an inconvenience. For example if the site is very large, then the project manager may find that time is wasted going to and from the welfare facilities rather than using the time constructively. When the preliminary works have been completed demolition on the site can begin, since the site is located on a 10 ha site of old forest 5 miles out of the town centre; suitable access and transportation will need to be arranged for plant/machinery. The demolition stage will result in the recycling of materials, the forest trees for example can be recycled for timber use during the construction process; this increases the developments sustainable considerations. After the site has been fully cleared, excavation will be completed to create the required ground conditions, be it flat or, according to the design specifications. In many cases the land in which a project is developed can provide difficulties in terms of workability. Loose soil, often at a shallow depth, is an inevitable problem that can be solved using deep foundations; in this case however, shallow foundations will be used as outlined in the brief (Palmer 2002). The excavation stage will also prepare the site for eventual service installation and the construction of the substructure. Excavation will be carried out using various machines, plant is required during the construction process in order to increase production, minimize labour requirements, conduct high standards of constructions and also possibly reduce overall costs (Cooke 1997). During the planning process decisions must be made with regards the availability and use of plants. The substructure will consist of reinforced concrete foundations to allow sufficient support of the buildings by transporting the load to the ground, this will be especially vital for the community hall which will consist of a steel frame and metal cladding roof. Service works will also need to be carried out during the substructure stage to allow for pipes/cable routes to be considered also, drainage and refuse systems will need to be allowed to pass through and leave the various sites, be it below ground or through walls. Services however must not pass below foundations (Hinze 2010). The superstructure on the other hand will require extensive work, relating to the floors, walls and roofs; these will all be subject to the design specifications. Scaffolding will be required when working on raised platforms i.e. first floor levels, roofs etc, these will consist of steel or aluminium alloy tubes. As the development will consist of a 200 home housing estate, the homes will be of identical layout and size, for this reason pre-fabricated timber roof trusses will be delivered and hoisted into position before being placed on the supporting walls. The floors and ceilings in the homes will be timber constructed where as the community centre will consist of a concrete floor and metal cladding roof. The walls in the homes will be brick and block masonry fully insulated cavity walls, these will be plastered inside. Completion of the substructures and superstructures will then allow the services to be introduced to the buildings; these include drainage, pluming, gas and sanitary works. Some services will require installation below ground, specifically in trenches. Service works generally cause widespread disruption to the public, especially to traffic through road works; there should be a significantly lower impact however, since the housing project is being developed on an old forest site. Local authority permission must be granted before work commences, this will involve in the inspection of works carried out already and final tests being conducted. The plumbing works, which are installed above ground, will benefit from construction after the basic structural works have been completed. The finishes relating to the build require extensive organisation to ensure that they are completed accordingly as certain processes cannot begin until others have been completed. For this reason, a larger number of workers should be employed to carry out the finishing works simultaneously when possible, to ensure timely completion. The landscaping with regards this project should not be very costly as the location chosen for the project is an old forest, in comparison to some builds which are built in an area which requires more greenery and trees to be planted. Methods of circulation and travel will need to be established however including roads and footpaths. With regards the community centre security will need to be addressed as a priority as it will be serving the local community, including children for example. The project will not be completed until the site has been fully cleared and inspected. All surplus material and debris will not to be transported and disposed of accordingly or recycled if possible. Plants, offices and huts will need to be dismantled and cleared as well. The site must be left in a very good condition to allow inspection by various teams and bodies to ensure the development is both up to standard, matches the design specification and is also safe for occupation (Cooke 1997).
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Role And Importance Of Strategic Planning Introduction Strategic planning has been previously used for the tangible products rather than being used for services like the hospitability or the tourism industry which has just recently gone through a massive change.. Previously strategic management was not applied to the sector as it was only restricted to the product industry whereas now the new dynamics have changed the workings and now strategic management has become a part of this service industry as well and not only that but now it is alos used extensively in the service sector. Having said that , still the strategic management literature found regarding the hospitability and the tourism industry is very restricted as very less work has been done in this regard. The industry is still in its infancy so the limited relevant literature is an important issue. (Gilbert and Kapur,1990) It will be noticed that marketing plays a very evident role in the process of strategic management because all the material found on the subject matter is referring to marketing while defining the business strategic business planning. This essay will attempt to define strategy and strategic planning using a case study of Disneyland Florida in relation to tourism to make a critical assessment. This will be done by use of the internet, journals, books, and an attempt to speak to someone at county hall and the London Development Agency. The limitations for the study includes time constraints,, lack of literature that is accessible and constraint computer facilities. Strategic planning theory Strategic planning is considered as the vital function in the tourism and hospitability industry because it enables the firm to stay aware of the latest trends of the industry along with keeping the customers satisfied. This also gives a competitive advantage to the company over its competitors and helps it to work smoothly in the competitive and fast paced industy . It is a very powerful marketing tool; which is used to identify the customer, the customers needs and wants to provide for those needs and wants. Strategic planning is the process wherby abn organisation evvaluaates itself in order to determine its intended destination and formulates guidelines or ideas on how best to achieve it. O Connor has defined it as an incorporated process where th success is based on the longer success mangagement of an organization. (OConner,2000) Francis Buttle has defined it as a plan of action which is used to achieve the objectives. (Hotel and Food Service Marketing, 1993). Further to elaborate the process has been described as a methodology where a fit is maintained beteeen the organizations abilities , resources and the transforming oppportunites in the market. (Kotler, Bowen, Makens,2003) Buttle has differentiated between the tactics and the policies where the policy has been defined as lasting conditions which are imjposed upon deceision making while a strategy is refered to as rather a flexible thing where the practices are change according to the situations. Thus a strategy is an evolving process which keeps on changing . Hall has identified the procrss as very integral because it allows enough developments in the tourism while the unequal preparation and development activities with reference to tourism are connected to an entire wide tourism plan to provide an entire frame for tourism. The strategic plans are considered as a long term goal which identifies chief means due to which the achieving goals has specified the important resource allocation to turn up at the ways. It has been considered as flexible and constantly evolving phenomena. In 2005 Mc Gee has called at a transforming phenomenon which should be changed according to the ecxternal environment. Hospitality and tourism industry, countries, hotels and tour operations are always competing with each othere. Give the ficklenesss of consumers and the speed with which they are willing to move to other providers, it is imperative that organisations formulate strategies that would keep their target markets interested and attract new customers. Kotler in 2003 has defined the term as a process where a fit is made beteen the organization and the resource in the presence of th transforming marketing opportuniteies. Thus, when formulating a strategy, an organisationss employees are crucially important in the executing of these strategies. A successful outcome is wholly dependant on how consumers perceive tha organisation through the representation by its employees and that is the most important reason why the wworkforce is considered and an integral asset for a company. Importance of strategic planning It is requird to formulate current goal with a complete plan in the mind. The planning is important because it includes the feedback from all the stakeholders. Hereas when one fails to plamn the tourism trip them he may go through various sever problems or negative situations at the destinations, thus, the planning of tourism is considered as a very integral approach for the policy maker who are planning tourism development. (Hall,2008) By planning the tourism development the things in the process could be made relatively easy. The actors in the presence of a plan may respond in fewer spans of time which may be beneficial for the policy ,makers and the tourism development as well and along with it, it would also provide a route to the planning process. Destinations in general function in an extremely aggressive situation where customers have a broad variety to choose from and which are very often comparable within a district or country . The confront destinations have been forced to face is to the development of something which is an exclusive thing or a physical situation, or a culture, or perhaps a set of products that has the ability to not only satisfy one time visitors but repeated ones also. (ESCAP2010) 3. Tourism planning approaches 3.1. incremental growth approach: Incremental growth refers to making sure that transformation can be done as the development processes opens up. In tourism this would be interpreted as that if formerly a plan has been made and the recommendations are also done, then the development alternatives are chosen prudently and is then implemented steadily and observed frequently until the objectives would have been met (Getz 1986). Even when the objectives are met, the incremental approach suggests a constant evaluation and check to make sure that the development supports cultural integrity and ecological integrity. Generally the theory which is applied at its best to the planning that generally takes place at different destinations and various levels that are site -specific. ( Tomothy and Tosun 2003). The approach is significant because of its flexibility and the fact that it enables high levels of predictability. (Getz, 1986). The process which is incremental development enables flexibility and encourages efficiency as it gives space for adjustments and changes in the process of development in the cases where various situations exist which have not been seen previously and may hamper the development of tourism. The advent o the incremental development has been contributed by the dissatisfaction of the conventional control which usually has focussed on quick development and partial flexibility. Previously a lot of stress is made on preparing the plan as the final prodfuct of a planning effort. Thus the approach manages to maintain that the planning process is constantly changing and is a continuous process, which should be adaptable keeping in mind the way of meeting the objectives of development. (Inskeep,1991). In 1992 Timothy suggested at quite a few places that in todays world quite a few clear examples of incremental tourism can be found because this newly developed concept has not been tried and tested much. Thus there are various examples of this around the world as well where long term strategic planning is doen in the manner that scatters physical and various othere forms of development initiatives into different development periods which may vary from 5 or 10 or 20 years. In 1991 it was suggested by Inskeep that the todays modern tourism plans have adopeted the approach as a way which would enable it to check the progress and assure the viability of development programs. It is important to note that when looking and evaluating tourism, incremental plans make things slightly complicated. Since, there are so many variations in the trends, the tourism industry is affected them by them increasingly. Consequently, it is important to ensure that plans for development are made keeping these things int consideration. According to Timothy and Touson (2003) there needs to be an incremental plan hich may be introduced. This incremental plan is all about a careful preparation of toruism based plans and it looks at the future potentials of the touism industry and also allows for a certain deal of flexibility coming along. This way even the future goals and aims can be looked upon judged and evaluated. 3.2 community approach In relation to this perspective, Murphy (1985) argues and favours the community form of tourism as being more sustainable in contrast to traditional mass tourism. The one reason why this happens to be the case is because it allows for a greater ease and flexibility to the locals as compared to the traditional ways when strong leaders made most of the decisions regarding tourism. Also there must be a great deal of consideration to the local ecology before any means to allow an increasing amount of tourism are introduced. According to cooper and hall (2008) the community based tourism approach has emerged during the 1970s and particularly has thought about by tourism secondly the main factors. Firstly, there needs to be a consideration of the ethical and social along with the economic negative externalities brought about by tourism . Next ,, It should also be noticed that if a tourism decision has to be made successful and effective, there needs to be a greater involvement of the local community in the decision making process. Murphy (1985) points out htat the fact the local needs are looked upon to is an important phenomenon in tourism industry today. Take the instance of st Lucia and the street party nearby the fishing village of Anse La Raye. The place was particularly famous for the local fish fry project which involved the selling of the local sea food in the traditional way. The particular street was held out and its local touch manintained out against the increasing traffic and the great inflos of tourists from across the world (Competing with the Best). Despite the many advantages that this approach has with it should be remembered that implementing such an approach has two main problems. Firstly, the approach is very time consuming and expensive to be implemented. This is because no clear decision can be made as to who decides how tourism plans should be made and finally who has the final verdict. Also since, its means of developing tourism may not be of a direct benefit to the countrys economy, the government may also be reluctant to encourage it. In other words it may be said that he community approach to tourism focuses mainly on the development of the community rather than on the development of the individuals who make up the community. Thus the community in itself tends to be more important than the locals (hall 2008). The approach makes and gives a greater authority to the local stake holders than otherwise. 3.3 collaborative approach With respect to the community based approach , hall states that collaboration of people in this case tends to be highly important. There should be a constructive use of the many opinions and a joint decision should be reached Gray (1989) states that a stake holder looks upon to analyse if the current circumstances help to serve his interest or not and that if there would be any collaboration that could be reached upon the various stake holders before reaching a proper decision about what to do. When there is a joint deciosion which needs to be reached upon by everyone in general. It is important to note that the power does not rest within one individual but with all the people in total (wood and gray 1991). Thus , gray (1988) suggests that it is important for the stake holders to be responsible or eligible for the tasks that are to be carried put if the right type of a decision needs to be made. Also the stakeholders may not have an access to most resources which is also an important issue which may be needed to be taken into consideration. Coordination has become one of the pre requisite for the planning and policy making of tourism. The term refers to the relating issues and decisions which enable them to match with one another and operate in a consistent manner. Coordination for tourism takes place in 2 manners which is horizontally, an example of which would be between the gobernment agencies which would be answerable for different tourism- related actions at the similar level of governance which includes the national parks, tourism and transportation while vertically the example would be that among diverse levels of government (like local, regional and provincial with in an secretarial and procedure systems (hall, 1999). In order to attain complete tourism development, collaboration between planning sectors at all levels is very important. 4. practice of strategic A business can have the best ideas and plans, however if the human resoures is not able to understand and carry forward the instructions, thus it may take the organization towards the failure. Therefore it is necessary that an organisation conduct a SWOT analysis before formulating a strategic plan. Internal analysis of the organization which includes the strengths and weaknesses and the external environment for the opportunities and threats, the organisation would better understand how best to proceed with its strategic planning. The strategic process of planning includes the indemnification of an organizations , vision, and the environmental scanning and strategy formulation and strategy implementation. (www.quickmba.com). Carrying out a PEST analysis is also beneficial to the strategic planning process. It has been considered that the economic stability is very important for the financial safety. Sociyt and the culture of the operational area should be taken into consideration when planning and technological advancement would keep the organisation abreast and ahead of global developments. 5. Disneyland Paris in Europe (community approach) Disneyland Paris in Europe is practical example of community approach. Tokyos success made it clear to the management that the Europe Park would be a good idea. Dissatisfied with the Tokyo deal, the Europe Park was managed in a very different manner. Disney has now managed to negotiate a larger stake in the park, nearby hotels and restaurant amenities. This huge opportunity got with itself immense risks as well . in april 1992, Euro Disney welcomed the European visitors. Euro Disney is located 40 km from the central Paris and as planned it has managed to be the most lavish and the biggest theme park that had to be built till now. (bigger than Anaheim, Orlandos or Tokyos parks). It was also projected to be a sure-fire money maker for its parent Disney. Neverthelesss, to the managements surprise the natives failed to take goofy over Mickey . The company struggled to get the consumers or huge sales, in the early years it had to ace a decline of over 10% . By summer 1994 Euro Disney had lost some $900 million, and up to today., Disneyland Resort Paris is still not profitable. Disney Group thought that they get success in Tokyo with Disneyland Tokyo now they had better idea and plan for other cultures to adopt the American Disney concept. Because of this they charged highly than others. When the Disneyland Paris was opened, in a limited time it gave shock to the Disney group that the plans failed to achieve their expectation. Due to this Disneyland paris faced a great loss in beginning and the condition start worse. As a result, it was thought seriously by the management to shut down the park. In such a situation the Saudi al-wahid bin abdul-aziz al-saud provided the essential cash injection ($500 million) which became the life support for the management as it enabled the organization for the reorganization and the financial stability for temporary basis. This helped the park a lot and it managed to get back the foot fall of the consumers. The immense profit that the company has gained has encouraged it to expand with another Disney Studio and a retail and office compound in Paris. 5.1 Reason of Disneyland Paris Failure at the beginning The reason of disneland paris failure at the beginning, Disney failed to approach public and public involvement. Due to cultural difference. This was the main reason of Disney failure and they experienced huge loss. The concept of disneland paris is similar to Tokyo and united states. The concept of Euro Disney consider and known as American. The French people are very sensitive about their history, language and custom. They protect their culture and language against English. The environment of Disneyland Paris was totally based on American style and culture. Disneyland Paris planning analysis Analysis of the Disneyland planning shows that the concept of the Disneyland paris is very unique. The Disneyland brand is very famous in Europe. The Disneyland Groupe is well known in all over the world. The idea and plan of Disneyland is successful in California, orland and Tokyo. The location they chosen is good and target the all big markets such as united kingdom, germany, france, etc. The exudation of strategy is good. From theory strategic planning to reality the implementation of plan in action is well introduced. There is nothing wrong with structure and construction. Walt Disney company had built the bigger and most lavish theme park than other parks. The project is perfect but failed to work as Disney management whished. 6. result From above mentioned data it shows that the strategy planning not always goes right and gets success. Its important to achieve the task we should completely analyse all other aspects, because strategy planning is not sufficient for success. The other aspects that are related to strategy should be studying well weather it is related to loacation , finance, marketing, socially, economically, public approach and pubic involvement, advantages and disadvantages of strategy, profits and loss, a complete analysis of strategy is essential before exudation and implementation of strategic plan. Because the strategic out come depend on this . the result we get helps us to make a conclusion about how much the rate of success we achieve from this strategy. At the beginning Disneyland paris was not successful but after changing the strategy and again strat with new strategy process. In 1995 disneyland paris starts work well and European theme park become successful. The number of visitors is incre asing day by day to visit Disneyland Paris. 7. island of timor-leste (incremental approach) The island of Timor-Leste (Tourism development strategies for Timor Leste is a classic example to show how tourism development can be allowed by using the incremental approach. The place is located near Indonesia and has emerged as a new country for tourism development. The tourist attractions in this country are magnificent landscapes along with ancient cultures as well as an attractive and distinct history. However , the island lacks infrastructure facilities in addition to an adequate level o financial investments and funding. Moreover, there is a need for a popular legalisation and the documentation of the various historical sites. There also needs to be a careful ensuring of the fact that the cultural buildings and monuments are properly secured (tourism development strategies for Timor-Leste) According to the Timorese the incremental approach is the best policy to allow for a strong and sustainable tourism development because it considers community participation in addition to sustainability. The islanders believe that there are no hard and fast rules to provide a great deal of facilities to the tourists coming in. (tourism development strategies for timor-leste) the island tourists are against the hasty construction of buildings and thus aim to avoid them. However , they care for the sustainability of their environment which is and important step for the future because this timor lestor approach to develop tourism allows the maximum benefit of the local community. Recommendation Thus it can be assured that the Timor Lester approach allows for the maximum benefit of the local population and is therefore important for future developments as well since it focuses on step by step building of facilities and infrastructure which would be beneficial for everyone that is , the tourism industry, the tourists and also the economy of the country. Conclusion I have chosen examples of two different approaches of strategic planning related to tourism one is community approach and other is incremental growth approach. Disneyland Paris study analysis represents community based approach. Though the concept of Disney was good but initially they faced problems. In initially the Disneyland Paris strategic approach was not completely community based approach. Disney is copied same strategy of Tokyo and U.S. They failed to get people attraction. Disneyland management didnt recognize the cultural and custom difference between America and Europe. That was the main reason Disneyland Paris failure at the beginning and experienced a great loss. The condition become worse Disneyland Paris failed to work as owners want. But later they start with new strategy that was completely based on community approach. Disneyland Paris starts work well and they succeeded in getting public interest. In incremental growth approach when planning stage is begin and after the preparation of the plan the options are chosen very carefully. Exudates step by step and monitored continuously until the task have been achieved. I believe that there are enormous advantage to this approach because tourism is multifaceted industry. In tourism the choices of tourist change rapidly. Island of Timor-leste near Indonesia has a unique magnificent landscapes, ancient culture and textured history. Its new for tourism development. The Island lack many facilities such as water supply, accommodation, roads and electricity, it is also lack of finance . according to In Trimorese opinion incremental approach is the best because there are few programme for development those focuses on keeping natural environment. Incremental approach initiates a plan and use local support. Different locations have different criteria its not necessary that if one strategy is successful in elsewhere and when same strategy transfer in somewhere else it will get same response.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Plagiarism Ã A writer has only two things to sell: his words and his ideas. If you steal either, itÃ¢â¬â¢s as bad as stealing any other peddlerÃ¢â¬â¢s stock-in-trade. Unlike other peddlers, though, the writer gives you permission to use his stock-in-trade at your will as long as you point out that the stuff originally belonged to him. Ã Original Material, from Henry I. Christ, Hamlet with ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide, Amsco School Publication, New York, 1970, p. 321. The play is an eternal challenge, a lock with many keys, none of which ever fits perfectly. Every interpretation presents just a portion of the possibilities. Every new version opens up new vistas, without limiting further experimentation. Every generation comes, looks, and studies the play, but never comes up with all the answers. Ã Below are three student attempts to use Henry ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s material. Student Version A (plagiarized): The play Hamlet is like a lock with many keys, none of them fitting perfectly but each of them giving a part of the possibilities. Every new interpretation opens new possibilities but without stopping new interpretations. New readers study the play but never come up with all the answers. Ã Student Version A has rearranged some of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas and has substituted some words for others, but by no means could this writing be called the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s own writing. He has stolen all of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas and some of his words. Student Version B (plagiarized): Henry Christ points out that the play is like a lock with many keys. Each key presents just a portion of the possibilities. Every new version opens up new vistas, without stopping new interpretations. Every generation studies the play, but never comes up with all relevant answers (Christ, 321). Ã This student has included a citation at the end and an introduction at the beginning, but the lack of quotation marks anywhere tells the reader that only the ideas were taken from Christ. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s not true: some words were also taken from Christ. Student Version C (not plagiarized):
Sunday, August 18, 2019
A Dream Deferred in A Raisin in the Sun and Harlem In Lorraine Hansberry's play A Raisin in the Sun, the author reveals a hard-working, honest African-American family struggling to make their dreams come true. Langston Hughes' poem, "Harlem," illustrates what could happen if those dreams never came to fruition. Together, both Hansberry and Hughes show the effects on human beings when a long-awaited dream is thwarted by economic and social hardships. Each of the characters in A Raisin in the Sun has a dream for which they base their whole happiness and livelihood on attaining. However, the character of Lena Younger, or Mama, differs from the other members of her family. Time after time, Mama postpones her dream of owning a house and garden to perpetuate the dreams of her family members. Finally, when Mama receives the $10,000 insurance check, she feels that her dream can become reality, and purchases a house in Clybourned Park. Her dream "drys up like a raisin in the sun" when she learns that Walter gave the money to Willy Harris, who mysteriously disappears. Mama does not shatter simply because her dream has not been fulfilled. "Lena Younger's strength of character has come from the steadfast endurance of hardship and a refusal to be conquered by it" (Phillips 51). Mama's economic hardships may have killed her dream, but she has not allowed it to kill her. The social inequality which the Younger's encounter also does not hinder Mama's compassion. Mr. Lindner temporarily shatters Mama's dream of owning a home when he comes to the Youngers prepared to give them money to move from Clybourne Park. The derogatory use of "you people" by Mr. Lindner has little to no effect on Mama's steadfast decision to move to Clybo... ... beings react when a dream dies. Edward J. Mullen notes that Hughes' poem represents the idea that, "the inhabitants of this 1951 Harlem seem to be seeking feverishly and forlornly for some simple yet apparently unattainable satisfaction in life" (142). Both Hansberry's play and Hughes' poem establish a powerful and human reaction to the death of a dream. Works Cited Hansberry Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun.  Literature. 5th ed. Eds. James N. N. Pickering and Jeffery D. Hoeper. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice, O. 1700-57. Hughes, Langston. "Harlem."  Literature. 5th ed. Eds. James H. Pickering and Jeffery D. Hoeper. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice, 1027-28. Mullen, Edward J. Critical Essays on Langston Hughes. Boston: G. K. Hall, 142. Phillips, Elizabeth C. The Works of Lorraine Hansberry. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1973. 48-62.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Nursing is a unique profession that is vital worldwide. I moved to Australia for a better life and career after having worked as a Registered Nurse in overseas for six years. I had completed studying Diploma of Nursing for three years which included theory and hospital trained nursing. To be registered, as a nurse in Australia Nurses and Midwives Board requires assessing the qualifications of international nurses to ensure that nurses are substantially equivalent to Board approved Australian Nursing qualification. Being supported by my husband and relatives, motivated me to commence my University study and to upgrade my qualification.I would like to make a positive difference in peoples' lives. I have always desired a career that involved personal contact and that's what nursing gives me. It is an opportunity for me to use caring in a holistic manner. As a university student, lots of self-study is required. One challenge will be assignment and a presentation, especially as English is my second language. One of the major challenges during my university study will be the financial problem, such as tuition fees, expenses and textbooks. A further challenge may be having several assignments and readings being due close to one another.One of the economic problems is time management as a university student. Time management involves doing the right thing at the right time. Managing time effortlessly can make the difference between a successful student and one who Is defeated by stress. So, time management and balance is significant within my life. To Improve on time management, creating a timetable, study plan will keep me on track In managing my studies. The overall workload of my course material is least likely to be under my control however, my time management and economic management are factors that I can directly Influence.
Confidential For Internal Use Only Team __ TEAM __ Ã¢â¬â Marketing Plan (Sample) MKTG 649, Fall 2009 Prepared for: Professor Mahmood Hussain Prepared By: Your Name Your Name Your Name Your Name Your Name 1 Confidential For Internal Use Only Team 8 Executive Summary Six Flags has had great success over a number of years through providing a one-stop entertainment destination complete with thrilling roller coaster rides and an exciting atmosphere. In recent years, however, Six Flags has been struggling and is now in dire need of a boost to help regain its success in the Theme park industry.We focused our secondary research on past and current articles on Six Flags as well as the theme park industry as a whole. Databases and websites were utilized in gathering this information. In addition, we delved into previously conducted research regarding the theme park industry and Six Flags. This further allowed us to gather exactly how Six Flags arrived at its success, and ultimately to its f ailure over the past few years. This is information that could have been obtained through interviewing Six Flags employees; however, we chose to proceed with the more efficient choice of secondary research.The biggest issue Six Flags faces is its huge debt of over $2 billion dollars. The firm is on the verge of bankruptcy and has been pulled from the NYSE due to their shares falling below the $1 requirement. The firm needs to pay $300 million dollars to preferred stockholders, and lacks the capital to do so. Another key issue they face is their narrow target market. Six Flags has decreased their focus down to the youth, or teen market with less emphasis placed on appealing to families. This represents a huge loss of potential customers for Six Flags.Furthermore, there is a demand for thrill rides and rollercoasterÃ¢â¬â¢s that Six Flags can continue to benefit from. In order to meet both of these issues head on, Six Flags must not only expand their demographic target, but also thei r product offerings. Revenue must be generated as quickly as possible through increased traffic to the parks and product diversification. The marketing objectives we aim to address, execute and accomplish are to increase revenue through diversification and pricing methodologies, and to increase the target market to include families, teens, and young adults.Increased guest spending is a major component of what target markets we are trying to reach. We want to move away from the teen market, which does not spend much if any money in the park beyond admission. The two new target markets Six Flags is going to cater to are families and 21+ young adults. Six Flags will differentiate itself by providing both of these sources of entertainment in one location. We want Six Flags to be a place like no other in the country. In order for Six Flags to stay competitive, we need to diversify our means of revenue.That will be done with the introduction to two new ventures, Motion Simulators and Boul evard Six. Six FlagsÃ¢â¬â¢ current pricing strategy for their online daily tickets is proving to be successful in terms of attracting more visitor attendance. Extended hours for special events can also deliver an extra added value to 21 and over patrons who are willing to pay a 25 percent increase on top of regular one-day admission. Being open until 12 midnight for such events would grant exclusivity to a smaller crowd with less falling in line.Another feature would be to have hard liquor and beer priced at a premium to further maximize profits. The first sales promotion will be a yearly engagement, every Fourth of July where all guests get in for free. We will call this promotion Ã¢â¬Å"FREEdom DayÃ¢â¬ . Another frequent promotion will be called Fun in the Sun. We anticipate an increase in Six Flags performance through the execution of our Marketing Plan. 2 Confidential For Internal Use Only Team __ Table of Contents IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Research MethodologyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 1 Situation Analysis SWOT AnalysisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 2 Competitor AnalysisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 3 Customer AnalysisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 4 Company AnalysisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 4 Marketing Problems and OpportunitiesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦5 Managerial Recommendations Market Focus Marketing ObjectivesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 8 Target MarketÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 8 DifferentiationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 8 PositioningÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦9 Marketing Programs Product StrategyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 9 Pricing StrategyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 0 Promotion StrategyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 10 Distribution StrategyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 11 Implementation and Control Financial DataÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 11 Financial ProjectionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦11 Financial ControlÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 12 ConclusionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 12 AppendixÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 14 3 Confidential For Internal Use Only Team __ Introduction Six Flags has had great success over a number of years through providing a one-stop entertainment destination complete with thrilling roller coaster rides and an exciting atmosphere.In recent years, however, Six Flags has been struggling and is now in dire need of a boost to help regain its success in the Theme park industry. The amusement park industry offers a variety of attractions to a very large and diverse market. With everything from high-flying roller coasters to cartoon and movie character based offerings, theme parks have created a very successful market that has been on the rise for many years. However, like everything else, companies have seen their good times as well as their bad. It seems as though Six Flags may be on the decline in an exhausted market.Notwithstanding increased attendance on an annual basis, inclu ding the sharp decline of their teen market, the amusement park industry has been affected greatly by harsh economic times. Six Flags, Inc. specifically has become the epitome of this trying industry. Despite an increasing attendance rate over the years, Six Flags has seemed to dig itself into a hole that it cannot seem to get out of. Their debt-load has handcuffed them to the verge of bankruptcy. Their inability to increase attendance to the point of improved profitability and debt-reduction has helped lead this company toward potential failure.The significance of an increased attendance rate in 2008, (up to 25. 3 million from 24. 9 in 2007) yet still reporting a net loss of $207 million for the fourth quarter of 2008 is very big. 1 This signifies the tremendous amount of trouble Six Flags is currently in as their biggest point of profitability, attendance, has not been enough to dig this company out. This indicates that a drastic change of direction is in need for Six Flags, Inc. Although the numbers are bad for Six Flags, a marketing initiative may help bring this dying company back to life. Research MethodologyDue to lack of resources and low participant count, we have decided to focus our research on secondary research only. While we do believe it may be beneficial to gather information and suggestions through primary research, there are many resources available through secondary research that will sufficient. As the theme park industry is large, a vast amount of literature and information is available. Through researching readily available information, we are able to gather both positive and negative options and research from very credible sources. Although the utilization and execution f primary research is ideal and extremely beneficial, particularly for marketing initiatives, its overall implementation is not a simple task. The type of primary research required to make sound marketing decisions, especially for a depressed company like Six Flags, would need to be on a much larger scale than we are capable of handling in such a short period of time. We focused our secondary research on past and current articles on Six Flags as well as the theme park industry as a whole. Databases and websites were utilized in gathering this information.In addition, we delved into previously conducted research regarding the theme park industry and Six Flags. This further allowed us to gather exactly how Six Flags arrived at its success, and ultimately to its failure over the past few years. This is information that could have been obtained through interviewing Six Flags employees; however, we chose to proceed with the more efficient choice of secondary research. 1 Confidential For Internal Use Only Team __ Situation Analysis SWOT Analysis Strengths Six FlagsÃ¢â¬â¢ main strength in the present state of the U. S. economy seems to be its Ã¢â¬Å"free fallingÃ¢â¬ prices.For instance, everyone who buys a daily ticket online for Six Flags Discovery K ingdom (Vallejo, CA) pays the kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ price of $29. 99. This has directly increased attendance. Next to its attractive prices is Six FlagsÃ¢â¬â¢ internationally recognized brand name. The name, along with its wide array of entertainment products and experiences, has built enduring equity for 48 years. To refocus and re-energize its brand, Six Flags CEO Mark Shapiro and his marketing and entertainment teams have worked to make the theme park more family-friendly while still maintaining its ignature reputation for record-breaking thrill rides. The parks are cleaner, there is more broad-based entertainment, an enforced code of conduct for guests, and better trained employees who can deliver more quality service. As a result, key satisfaction scores were at or above all time highs for the company. Six Flags advocates special causes by holding annual walk-a-thons in the park, joining the fight to help cure childrens cancer. They further support the Ã¢â¬Å"green movementÃ¢â¬ by using biodegradable commercial trash bags throughout the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s 20 locations in the United States, Mexico, and Canada.Location is another strength of Six Flags. The theme park is located in major metropolitan areas making it a probable, convenient drive away from home. Weaknesses Although Six Flags is now showing an increase in visitor attendance due to advertisements showcasing low ticket prices and an increased value offering, its number one weakness seems to be leveraging their massive debt load of over $2 billion dollars. It must also pay $300 million dollars to preferred stockholders in which it has no way of paying.The creation of new thrill rides can cost up to $20 million dollars each while consumer spending remains low. This debt will continue to stifle Six FlagsÃ¢â¬â¢ growth and may lead them to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. Since admission is up, the lines for each major attraction will also increase. This may make impatient patrons waiting in the hot summer sun to go elsewhere for entertainment. Another weakness is the retention rate of teenagers and young adults has continued to lessen because they claim Ã¢â¬Å"thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing new for us. Disappointingly, a major weakness that the theme park is also trying to control is its fatal freak accidents. In June 2008, a 17-year-old was decapitated by the Batman roller coaster when he scaled two six-foot fences and entered a restricted area at Six Flags Over Georgia. The year before, a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s feet were cut off when a freefall thrill ride malfunctioned at the Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom. A cable had snapped and wrapped around the 16-year-oldÃ¢â¬â¢s feet, severing them at her ankles. Opportunities Six Flags is limited in opportunities as they have no cash on hand and an overwhelming debt load.However, to attract back the decreasing retention rate of its young adult market which as a result can leverage the debt, perhaps Six Flags can open a 21 and over nightclub. The club can hav e different elaborate themes each night, such as a Ã¢â¬Å"BatmanÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"TerminatorÃ¢â¬ party. A sports bar and restaurant can attract a new demographic of sports fanatics. Guest appearances by sports icons in these restaurants can also drive traffic through the park. Ride simulators in malls, introducing new and upcoming thrill rides, may also convince prospects to try the Ã¢â¬Å"real thingÃ¢â¬ at a 2 Confidential For Internal Use OnlyTeam 8 theme park. Six Flags can also try to sell some of its land that it owns surrounding its parks to help lessen their debt. It can even hold more events ranging from special causes to entertainment and extend its operational hours to the 21 and over crowd so as to increase ticket sales. Joining more strategic alliances internationally such as Dubai Holding to build a Six Flags in Dubailand can also prove to be profitable. Most importantly, Six Flags needs to get to the root of the problem and come up with a restructuring agreement that will satisfy both its stockholders and the company.Filing for chapter 11 bankruptcy may inadvertently decrease attendance as visitors may perceive that operations, including safety on rides and the cleanliness of the premises could be affected (although Six Flags confirms that these will not be affected if they do file). Thus, bankruptcy could ruin Six FlagsÃ¢â¬â¢ image and limit more of their opportunities to expand. Threats Threats mainly include other major theme park competitors such as Disneyland and Universal Studios and indirect competition with more affordable fun activities such as miniature golfing or watching a movie.Other threats include the current swine flu that has spread rapidly throughout several states in the U. S. from its origin in Mexico. Some families may think twice before going to a theme park with hundreds or thousands of other persons in which any may be infected with the deadly virus. Severe weather conditions can even temporarily close down the par k. In 2005, it was necessary for Six Flags New Orleans to close down in preparation for Hurricane Katrina. KatrinaÃ¢â¬â¢s heavy winds and floods left an estimated $32. 5 million worth of damages. The park has since been closed. Competitor AnalysisThe major competitor of Six Flags Inc. is the Walt Disney Company. In comparison, the Disney Company focuses on attracting visitors from across the world to visit its parks while Six Flags targets its local demographic and does not seek to advertise internationally. Although Disneyland offers the magical experience that families have grown up to know and love through its flagship characters and movies, Six Flags is seeking to be the alternative getaway in a downward economy. First off, Six Flags is just a drive away for those who live in close radius to metropolitan areas.At Six Flags Discovery Kingdom (Vallejo, CA), as mentioned earlier, everyone can pay the online daily kidÃ¢â¬â¢s price of $29. 99. Disneyland and Disney World mainly r equire a whole vacation package, including airplane flights and a hotel stay. To visit DisneylandÃ¢â¬â¢s entire theme park in one day, a patron will have to shell out as much as $94 per day. In 2008, Six Flags even reported a 5 percent increase in revenue with reduced costs from the previous year while Disneyland recently reported an 8. 2 percent drop in revenue and increased costs for this yearÃ¢â¬â¢s first quarter.Universal Studios movie-theme park, known for simulating their top rated movies into rides and other experiences, is another competitor that also requires a vacation package. Its general admission is $67. 99 a day. Last year, the park underwent attendance downturns due to construction and visitors holding off on vacations until the new rides were complete. However, even in a troubling economy families are willing to pay a premium to visit such parks as Disneyland and Universal Studios to go to a place Ã¢â¬Å"where dreams come trueÃ¢â¬ and to get the ultimate Holly wood experience as seen through television and movies respectively.These are deemed to be more affordable when comparing it to a family trip to Europe or Asia. Six FlagsÃ¢â¬â¢ other competition includes the experience of shopping at a mall, going out to the movies, or even staying home and obtaining thrills through Sony Playstation or NintendoÃ¢â¬â¢s Wii. Consumers feel like Ã¢â¬Å"getting awayÃ¢â¬ once in a while and if they are restricted to a budget, they may consider the cheaper activity that they can repeat more than once during closer periods of time. 3 Confidential For Internal Use Only Team 8 Customer Analysis Approximately 25 million guests attend Six Flags annually.The park appeals to a broad demographic in which seventy-five percent of its customers live within 100 miles. Its main customer focus is its family unit. Most of its parks are limited to being open during the spring and summer seasons and only on weekends during off-seasons (due to weather factors). In th is case, generating revenue from the family unit is crucial while still trying to retain its core audience of teens and young adults who are drawn to extreme rides. Thus, Six Flags is providing a wider product offering to increase its overall visitor attendance.It is also remaking its image into a wholesome, highly-branded, family-friendly place similar to that of Disney. There are more rides and attractions not only for a young demographic, but also for families. Six Flags has also given these customers more to do and spend money on by bringing in brands such as Johnny Rockets, Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s, Cold Stone Creamery, and Kodak. The parkÃ¢â¬â¢s attendance has gradually declined in recent years but started to pick up again in 2008 and is showing great promise this spring season. For instance, Six Flags Discovery Kingdom had its largest attendance since 2003 during their two-week spring break period.The family unit is price sensitive; therefore with daily ticket prices being fairly low along with current low gas prices, Six Flags seems like an affordable trip. The company is projecting 55 percent of its total revenues to come during the months of July and August. More families and higher disposable income families are expected to contribute to these revenues. Also, seventy-five percent of Six Flags consumers claim that their primary reason for attending the park is to spend time with friends and family. Company Analysis Six Flags, Inc. is the largest regional theme park company in the world providing a national brand with regional focus.The firm has 20 parks total, 18 of which are in the United States, with the other 2 located in Mexico and Canada. The entertainment destinations in the U. S. comprise theme, water and zoological parks with over 900 rides, including 130 rollercoasterÃ¢â¬â¢s. Six Flags, Inc. is headed by CEO Mark Shapiro and is a publicly-traded corporation headquartered in New York City. The first Six Flags theme park, Six Flags Over Texas, w as opened in 1961 by Angus Wynn. The parks name came from the six themed sections, modeled after the culture of the six countries whose flags flew over Texas during the state's colorful history. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s parks offer a complete one-stop diversified entertainment destination for all ages. 3 Thrill rides, restaurants, games, themed areas, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s areas, parades, concerts, shows and much more are available for the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ enjoyment. Business Model Six Flags operates as a seasonal business Ã¢â¬â over 85% of park attendance and revenues are generated between the second and third quarters of the calendar year. 4 Its business model is comprised primarily of making money through ticket sales, in-park food and merchandise sales, and sponsorship revenue. 5 4 ConfidentialTicket Pricing For Internal Use Only Team 8 Ticket pricing covers a broad range, with tickets available for a single day park visit to season passes. There are 3 types of tickets available: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Single day 1 park (general and children admission) Single day 2 park pass (general and children admission) Season Pass Single day 2 park passes are for locations that have both a Six Flags theme park and water park located next to each other. Please note that some theme parks have a water park inside of them, but do not require a 2 park pass. General admission prices range from $29. 9 Ã¢â¬â $69. 99. Children admission prices range from $20. 99 Ã¢â¬â $29. 99. These ranges cover Single Day 1 and 2 park passes for theme, water, and animal parks. Season Pass prices range from $39. 99 Ã¢â¬â $125. Season Passes may be purchased for single park admission or dual park admission. Season Passes include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Unlimited visits Free tickets for guests Over $300 in park savings Access to Rise and Scream early openings and private Season Passholder Day Accepted at 15 Six Flags locations including La Ronde, Montreal Season passes are Six F lags core value offering.Passes cost little more than a dayÃ¢â¬â¢s regular admission ticket price, and provide Six Flags visitors with added benefits and savings. Six Flags also offers a premium pass Ã¢â¬â the FLASH Pass Ã¢â¬â that serves as a ride reservation system. A limited number of FLASH Passes are available each day of operation and are valid the day of purchase only. There are 2 tiers for the FLASH Pass, Regular and Gold, with different stipulations for each. Regular FLASH Pass Ã¢â¬ ¢ Avoid lines by making a reservation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wait as long as everyone else is waiting, but not in line Ã¢â¬ ¢ Prices: $27. 9 for 1 person to $117. 99 for 6 people Gold FLASH Pass Ã¢â¬ ¢ Enjoy discounted wait time of up to 75% Ã¢â¬ ¢ Prices: $37. 99 for 1 person to $177. 99 for 6 people In-park Merchandise and Food Six Flags has various licensing and partnership agreements with other firms. Six Flags has held a licensing agreement with DC Comics and Warner Bros. Consumer Products enab ling Six Flags to utilize the rights to the cartoon characters. Six Flags has used the licensing agreement to create character programs including meet and greets, meals, photograph and autograph opportunities. 6 5 ConfidentialFor Internal Use Only Team 8 Six Flags has further utilized the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ likeness for merchandise sales including toys, souvenir items, apparel, and more. In addition, cartoon themed rides have been constructed after both DC Comic and Warner Bros characters. Six Flags employs in-park and out-park alliances with restaurants and food manufacturers. Past and current out-of-park alliances have included promotions with Coca Cola, KraftÃ¢â¬â¢s Lunchables product line, and Papa Johns Pizza. 7 In-park alliances have included the implementation of restaurant chains within Six Flags parks.Johnny Rockets, Papa Johns Pizza, and Cold Stone Creamery can be found within the parks, and Tyson chicken has become the official chicken supplier to all parks. 8 Additiona l Partnerships Other promotional alliances have been implemented as well. One such example is the sale and availability of Kodak products in Six Flags paks. Moreover, Six Flags and Nintendo have collaborated by offering free Wii game plays to the Six Flags visitors standing in-line, thus allowing them the opportunity to sample the Nintendo DS games.Six Flags also promotes its brand through American Express, Chase, Blue Green, Panda Express, and The United States Army. 9 American Express and Six Flags have a promotional offering for park visitors in the form of a VIP tours. Patrons may book their Six Flags VIP Tour Presented by American Express for participating theme parks. Please note that the VIP Tour is for theme parks only and does not include water slides and other waterpark attractions. Tours are given to groups or families by an experienced tour guide and can be customized.Tours are priced at $299 and include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢ â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Private guided tour for your family or group Front-of-the-line ride privileges Preferred parking Theme park admission Reserved show seating Private autograph session with select LOONEY TUNES or The Justice League characters Lunch and dinner with reserved seating at restaurants Unlimited snacks Souvenir ride or character photo Expedited access to most rides in the park American Express cardholders gain an additional offer by receiving 20% off each VIP tour booked when they pay with any American Express card. Six Flag ParksCalifornia Six Flags Magic Mountain, Los Angeles Ã¢â¬â theme park Six Flags Hurrican Harbor, Los Angeles Ã¢â¬â water park Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, Vallejo Ã¢â¬â theme and animal park 6 Confidential For Internal Use Only Team 8 Georgia Six Flags Over Georgia, Atlanta Ã¢â¬â theme park Six Flags White Water, Atlanta Ã¢â¬â water park Illinois Six Flags Great America and Hurricane Harbor, Chicago Ã¢â¬â theme and water park Kentucky Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom, Lousiville Ã¢â¬â theme and water park Maryland Six Flags America, Baltimore/Washington DC Ã¢â¬â theme and water park Massachusetts Six Flags New England, Springfield Ã¢â¬â theme and water park Missouri Six Flags St.Louis Ã¢â¬â theme and water park New Jersey Six Flags Great Adventure, Jackson Ã¢â¬â theme park Six Flags Hurrican Harbor, Jackson Ã¢â¬â water park Six Flags Wild Safari, Jackson Ã¢â¬â animal park New York The Great Escape and Splashwater Kingdom, Lake George Ã¢â¬â theme and water park Six Flags Great Escape Lodge and IndoorWaterpark, Lake George Ã¢â¬â lodge and water park Texas Six Flags Over Texas, Arlington Ã¢â¬â theme park Six Flags Fiesta Texas, San Antonio Ã¢â¬â theme and water park Canada La Ronde, Montreal Ã¢â¬â theme park Mexico Six Flags Mexico, Mexico City Ã¢â¬â theme park Six Flags will be opening a third international location in the United Arab Emirates, Dubailand, which will open its doors to c ustomers in 2011. Marketing Problems and Opportunities The biggest issue Six Flags faces is its huge debt of over $2 billion dollars. The firm is on the verge of bankruptcy and has been pulled from the NYSE due to their shares falling below the $1 requirement.The firm needs to pay $300 million dollars to preferred stockholders, and lacks the capital to do so. Another key issue they face is their narrow target market. Six Flags has decreased their focus down to the youth, or teen market with less emphasis placed on appealing to families. This represents a huge loss of potential customers for Six Flags. Furthermore, there is a demand for thrill rides and rollercoasterÃ¢â¬â¢s that Six Flags can continue to benefit from. In order to meet both of 7 Confidential For Internal Use Only Team 8 these issues head on, Six Flags must not only expand their demographic target, but also their product offerings.Revenue must be generated as quickly as possible through increased traffic to the parks and product diversification. Managerial Recommendations Market Focus Marketing Objectives The marketing objectives we aim to address, execute and accomplish are to increase revenue through diversification and pricing methodologies, and to increase the target market to include families, teens, and young adults. We seek to create promotional offers that affect price and new product offerings, and to re-position Six Flags theme parks as an entertainment destination that appeals to all ages, and more importantly families.Value communication is extremely important in the current economic situation we are experiencing. Six Flags is a one-stop entertainment destination that offers very low admission prices along with numerous attractions and activities. It is a park that price-sensitive consumers can enjoy and afford. Six Flags needs to increase its revenue to become viable. These additional revenue streams are to include diversification and promotions. The largest project to create more revenue is the creation of Boulevard Six.It will create the opportunity to have in review stream all year long, rather than just the summer months. It will have a diverse collection of food and entertainment to please the target markets of families and young adults. This will include well known restaurants and entertainment companies, as well as new and excited ventures. Next would be the introduction of Motion Simulator rides located in malls around the nation. These would bring in additional revenue as well as bring awareness of Six Flags. At these locations, the rides would be of the most popular attractions from across all the Six Flags.Promotions could also increase traffic to the parks and increase the revenue during these times. Boulevard Bash is a Saturday night event for those 21 years and older with live entertainment. Six Dollar Sundays would increase visitors to the parks and would bring in more repeat customers. Too Hot to Resist Days would entice people to come to park s on days when it is warm out. They could partake in the water rides to stay cool during these times. And Ã¢â¬Å"FreeÃ¢â¬ dom Day would increase traffic to the park, however there would be revenue from ticket sales there would be from parking, food, and Boulevard Six.Target Market Increased guest spending is a major component of what target markets we are trying to reach. We want to move away from the teen market, which does not spend much if any money in the park beyond admission. The two new target markets Six Flags is going to cater to are families and 21+ young adults. Six Flags current target market is Ã¢â¬Å"mass-market blue-collar, with average income $50,000 per year, and probably split between teens and young adults on the one hand, and families on the 8 Confidential For Internal Use Only Team 8 ther. Ã¢â¬Å"10 These families are not the type that are/were taking international family vacations. These families are Ã¢â¬Å"trading from a three-day, four-figure trip to Disney to a one-day, three-figure trip to Six Flags. Ã¢â¬ 11 A trip to Six Flags is not cheap, but it is cheaper than. Ã¢â¬Å"A typical Six Flags visitor in 2007 spent $36 for the day, including parking, the price of a ticket, and meals. So, the company says, a day at Six Flags for a family of four costs less than $175. Ã¢â¬ 12 Young adults are another target market Six Flags is looking into.They are a segment that had more disposable income than teens do, possible even more than families. Ã¢â¬Å"Young adults in the U. S. spend 52% of their money on clothing, 22% on food, and 13% on music. Ã¢â¬ 13 With the addition of Boulevard Six, there is the opportunity to bring in more of the young adults, who would normally go to the local mall. Differentiation Six Flags has a lot going for it right now and with our marketing strategy, it may have the ability to differentiate itself from all the competitors. We aim to focus our differentiation based on the style of entertainment it offers.Six Flags will be a place people can go to have a day of excitement like no other theme park can offer. Without having to spend lots of money, people can have a great deal of fun during the day at an exciting theme park, and at night can cruise the Boulevard (Discussed below). There are obviously many places where one can go and enjoy a day at a theme park, however, they may have to travel a great distance if they desire to cap off the day with a night on the town. Six Flags will differentiate itself by providing both of these sources of entertainment in one location.Positioning We want Six Flags to be a place like no other in the country. In order to do this, we seek to position Six Flags in two ways. Due to the different offerings from Six Flags we donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to position ourselves in just one way. First, we aim to position ourselves as safe, family-friendly, lowcost form of entertainment. This position will be targeted to families and younger guests. We will advertise through d ay-time television and kidÃ¢â¬â¢s programming. Second, we will position ourselves as cool, fun, energetic and young-hearted.This position will be targeted to teens and younger adults (over 21) who would be interested in the Night of Fun as described below. We will hope to utilize different types of social media to target this demographic and project this type of positioning for Six Flags. Marketing Programs Product Strategy Six Flags has been providing their visitors products through their main channel, theme parks, during their existence. In order for Six Flags to stay competitive, we need to diversify our means of revenue. That will be done with the introduction to two new ventures, Motion Simulators and Boulevard Six.The motion simulators will be distributed throughout all major metropolitan malls that will be in close proximity to a Six Flags park. Malls are a choice location as they allow us to reach the broad demographics we target Ã¢â¬â families, teens, and young adults. The rides will have a selection of popular rides from Six Flags 19 parks. After the ride is over, it will Ã¢â¬Å"spit outÃ¢â¬ a 50% off admission coupon good for any Six Flags park, and must be redeemed within one month. This tactic is expected to drive sales up dramatically. 9 Confidential For Internal Use OnlyTeam 8 Boulevard Six will be an outdoor shopping district located outside of Six Flags larger parks. Its intention is to help produce revenue all year long, even while the parks are closed for the season. Boulevard Six will have a mix of food, shopping and entertainment for all ages. Restaurants will include California Pizza Kitchen, P. F. Changs, Johnny Rockets and more. Shopping will include Fossil, Gap, Abercrombie and more. Entertainment will come from the Comcast Sports Bar, nightclubs, live concert stages, Lucky Strike Bowling and movie theaters.Boulevard Six will also be the location of Boulevard Bash. Pricing Strategy Six FlagsÃ¢â¬â¢ current pricing strategy for their online daily tickets is proving to be successful in terms of attracting more visitor attendance. A great example is Six Flags Discovery Kingdom (Vallejo, CA). As a price bundle, the theme park can also offer online daily tickets with one-day discounted parking at 20 percent to further raise attendance. For its Discovery Kingdom park, visitors will pay $29. 99 plus $12 for one-day parking totaling $41. 99.If paid separately, parking would cost $15. For its season pass holders, Six Flags can give an automatic 10 percent on all meals and merchandise simply by presenting their season passes at point-of-sale. Vouchers and coupons do not need to be redeemed for the sake of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ convenience. In addition to perks such as free tickets for your friends on select days, and free special events, season pass holders who are 21 and over will also pay a discounted price of $15 to get into Six FlagsÃ¢â¬â¢ exclusive nightclub in Boulevard Six (mentioned under Ã¢â¬Å"PromotionÃ¢â ¬ ).Season parking passes also purchased online can be reduced by 20 percent and bundled with their appropriate season passes to increase the affordability and convenience of visiting Six Flags respectively. The V. I. P. tour requires a 4-person minimum and can cost up to $299 per person. This may seem like an extravagant and an unnecessary option. However, American Express cardholders with more discretionary income can enjoy this option at a 20 percent discount. To appeal towards more price-sensitive families who still want to get the ultimate V.I. P. experience, online specials should include a 20 percent discount on select days regardless of what credit card is being used. Extended hours for special events can also deliver an extra added value to 21 and over patrons who are willing to pay a 25 percent increase on top of regular one-day admission. Being open until 12 midnight for such events would grant exclusivity to a smaller crowd with less falling in line. Another feature wo uld be to have hard liquor and beer priced at a premium to further maximize profits.Ride simulators (mentioned in opportunities under Ã¢â¬Å"SWOT analysisÃ¢â¬ ) will cost the consumer $9 for a four-minute edge-of-your-seat excursion! (These will be located in all major metropolitan malls that will be in close proximity to a Six Flags park. ) After the ride is over, it will Ã¢â¬Å"spit outÃ¢â¬ a 50% off admission coupon good for any Six Flags park, and must be redeemed within one month. This tactic is expected to drive sales up dramatically. Promotion In order for our marketing efforts to be successful, we need to attract customers to the previously discussed new park and activities.This is where the use of promotions will come into play. With exciting new attractions offered by Six Flags, we will need to engage more people through various type of promotions. We suggest by starting with sales promotions. The first sales promotion will be a yearly engagement, every Fourth of July where all guests get in for free. We will call this promotion Ã¢â¬Å"FREEdom DayÃ¢â¬ . By incorporating the Independence Day 10 Confidential For Internal Use Only Team 8 theme, every Six Flags park will be the most enjoyable place to be on the Fourth of July.This will be a day where families can come to experience the rides and attractions, all themed accordingly, and can end the day with a 45 minute long firework display coordinated to a serious of popular current music hits. We want this promotion to help Six Flags become the leading place to be during the Fourth of July. Due to capacity constraints in each of the parks, attendance will be limited to the maximum capacity the park can handle. We will let more people in as other leave, and while everyone waits, we will have activities and entertainment out in the waiting area.Even though the guests are not in the park yet, they should still be able to have an enjoyable time while they wait. Since one of our main goals is to impro ve loyalty among our guests, we also want to have promotions on a more frequent level. One of these frequent promotions will be Six Dollar Sundays. We will offer admission to all Six-Flags for only $6 every Sunday. Another frequent promotion will be called Fun in the Sun. Anytime the temperature hits above a certain temperature (depending on the location of the park) admission will be half-price.This will help entice the people that are reluctant to come to the park if it is too hot outside. This next promotion will give free admission to people on their Birthday. We will call this our Birthday Club and promote keep records of every personÃ¢â¬â¢s Birthday so every year we can send them reminders to entice them to come back. Our final promotion will be called Boulevard Bash. This will be for the 21 and older crowd and will be priced at $25 per person. We will block off our Boulevard Six (described below) and admit only persons of age.We will provide alcohol and bring in musical tal ent to perform every Saturday night. Distribution The main channel of distribution will continue to be Six Flags parks. The majority of our marketing plan is focused around promotional and pricing methodologies, with the promos taking place in Six Flags. Through the price promos we execute, we anticipate an increase in sales of in-park merchandise as consumers will have more disposable income due to their savings on park admission. There will be one other channel of distribution, however, for the thrill Motion Ride simulators.The ride simulators will be distributed throughout all major metropolitan malls that will be in close proximity to a Six Flags park. Malls are a choice location as they allow us to reach the broad demographics we target Ã¢â¬â families, teens, and young adults. Implementation and Control Financial Data Six Flags is in financial distress, which might lead Six Flags to file chapter-eleven for bankruptcy. Furthermore, in October of 2008, the New York Stock Excha nge penalized Six Flags since its stockholder equity had fallen below $75-million, and the stock price had fallen below one-dollar violating the New York Stock Exchange standards. 4 If Six Flags does not increase its stock price 11 Confidential For Internal Use Only Team 8 and market capitalization, it risks being removed from the NYSE. 15 Six Flags will not be able to continue operating without finding a plan to restructure the debt. Six Flags lost $113 million in 2008, which is compared to $253 million in 2007. However, the most recent forth quarter its reported loss is $201 million, which is compared to 2007 forth quarter $127 million. 16 The projections for Six Flags are concerning. First, by August 15th of 2009, Six Flags must pay $287. million in Preferred Income Equity Redeemable Shares to the shareholders. However, if Six Flags failed, the amount would reach in excess of $318 million. 17 Second, the financial situation is very critical further complicating Six Flags ability to continue operating. Due to major banks being in financial trouble, there is no access to adequate capital resources and lending procedures are more stringent. In order to obtain capital, our group is projecting the possibility of Busch Entertainment Corporation, a competing theme park operator in the United States, to acquire Six Flags.Busch Entertainment Corporation is a subsidiary of Anheuser- Busch. Busch Entertainment Corporation operates nine-theme parks across the nation including the Sea World and Busch Garden Parks. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial performance has been generating revenue of $1. 3 Billion and a positive earned income on the revenue. 18 Therefore, by reaching such a deal, Six Flags can have access to capital to meet the financial obligations and payoff the creditors. On the other hand, it will diversify its risk portfolio, and the advantages to share assets of both Six Flags and Busch Entertainment Corporation.Financial Projection Financial Control Six Flags CEO has been proactive in restructuring the Six Flags itself, and not only the debt. For instance, by making some major changes, Six Flags can survive these crucial economic circumstances. Therefore, CEO Mark Shapiro has used his private equity firm, Red Zone Capital, for purchasing the restaurant chain Johnny Rockets in order to integrate the chain into all parks. In addition, Red Zone Capital bought Dick Clark Productions, television home of the Golden Globe Awards, and the Academy of Country Music Awards.This was done with the intention of featuring celebrity and music events in the parks to generate revenue and stimulate and increase foot traffic. 19 Financial control over the Six Flags situation is still valid, by both restructuring the debt, and the theme parks. In addition, to potential of gaining access to some financial resources from a possible merger or consolidation with the Busch Entertainment Corporation is valid as the firms have similar revenue models and Busch has e xperienced more successful financial performance than Six Flags. ConclusionSix Flags financial situation is extremely dire and the firm is currently floundering to stay afloat. We believe that with our Marketing Plan, we may enable them to greatly increase foot traffic and sales revenue. The pricing promotions will bring people to the park and cause them to spend the money they save on ticket sales, on in-park food or merchandise. The promotions for young adults featuring 21+ nights will provide a great source of income through food and alcoholic beverage sales. The Boulevard will further create a diversified source of revenue.The re-positioning of Six Flags as a fun, low-cost entertainment destination for the family will further increase their target market and communicate value to price-sensitive consumers. Six Flags is an enjoyable theme park where all of your family entertaining needs may be met. We anticipate an increase in Six Flags performance through the execution of our Mar keting Plan. 12 Confidential For Internal Use Only Team 8 McCann, Kyle. Ã¢â¬Å"Rough Year Recorded at Six Flags. Ã¢â¬ ABC2News. com. 12 March 2009. 7 May 2009 . 2 Ã¢â¬Å"Six Flags Ã¢â¬â Investor Relations. Ã¢â¬ Six Flags. 10 May 2009
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